Violation of the coordination of movement: the main types and types of ataxia
Ataxia is a violation of the coordination of movement,which is one of the most common motor disorders. Neuromuscular, genetically determined disease. The force in the limbs is completely preserved, but the movements in this disease become inaccurate, awkward, their consistency and continuity, balance during walking and standing are violated.
There are violations of coordination of motion: static (violation of equilibrium only when standing) and dynamic (discoordination for any movement).
Violation of coordination of movements in medicine is divided into types:
1. Sensitive or posterior-type ataxia. Occurs when a lesion occurs:
- peripheral nerves;
- the thalamus;
- spinal nerves;
- posterior columns of the spinal cord.
Sensitive ataxia is inherentlya kind of violation of coordination of movement and gait. Characteristic for this type of ataxia is the lack of support. Patients do not feel their movements and do not feel a foot of hard surfaces. This is due to a violation of the musculo-articular sensitivity.
2. Cerebellar type of ataxia. Occurs in connection with the defeat of some cerebellar systems. The cerebellar type of movement coordination disorder is divided into two forms:
- dynamic ataxia - hemispheric damagecerebellum (the function of performing various arbitrary movements of the upper and lower limbs is disturbed). Dynamic co-ordination disorder is manifested by hypermetry (disproportion, excessive movements); gouging, intentional tremor (trembling of limbs at the end of a purposeful movement); speech disorder (discoordination of the speech motor).
- static-locomotor ataxia - preferentialdefeat directly the worm of the cerebellum (mainly broken gait and resistance). Patients walk, staggering, and with each step of the foot they place very widely. In severe cases, some patients fall forward in a standing position (with the lesion of the anterior part of the cerebellum), or back (with damage to the posterior part of the cerebellum), practically do not hold the head.
Cerebellar ataxia is most often observed with intoxication, multiple sclerosis, encephalitis, cerebellar vascular disease, and also with tumors.
3. Vestibular type of ataxia. It is caused by disturbances in the work of the vestibular apparatus and manifests itself in the form of discoordination of movements. Characterized by systematic dizziness, accompanied by vomiting and nausea. When you change the position of the body, as well as with a sharp head movement, the characteristic symptomatology only increases.
4. Cortical type of ataxia. Violation of the coordination of movement in this case is due to disorders of the functions of the cortex of the anterior frontal lobes. From these departments pass the conducting paths directly to the cells of the cerebellar cortex, and as a result of their defeat, a gait disturbance occurs. Patients have a shaky, uncertain gait. At the moment of walking the body of the body deviates back, the feet are put on one straight line, sometimes marked when walking "braiding" the legs. With the defeat of these departments, it is possible to have astasia (impossibility to stand) and abasion (impossibility to walk), all this with the ability to perform the movements.
Still mark ataxia caused byhereditary diseases. Violation of the coordination of movement is the main clinical symptom in such diseases as Friedreich's family ataxia, hereditary-cerebellar ataxia Pierre Marie, Louis-Bar syndrome and olivopontocerebellar degeneration.
Ataxia treatment is most often based solely on the therapy of the initial, underlying disease. Today, therapeutic gymnastics and massage are widespread.