Types of projects: the basic principles of their classification
In practice, you can find different typesprojects. Management of them can combine completely different subspecies of activity with their results. In this case, we can talk about the construction of pyramids in Egypt, and the writing of course work by students in the learning process.
Principle of classification
In this case, the types of projects have significant differences both in the scope of application and in the composition of the subject, duration, scale, level of complexity, structure, interest groups and individuals.
Knowledge of these differences allows us to pay attention to certain features of individual groups. When implementing some types of projects, you can use different management methods and tools.
Their classification can be determined taking into account the following factors.
Scope of activities
First, the main types of projects differ in the areas of implementation. Among them are the following:
- Commercial, which are performed under contracts concluded for the production of products or the provision of services;
- Research, used in the field of development and engineering;
- types of projects related to the design and construction of basic production resources;
- Developments implemented in information systems.
This classification can be found depending on their implementation.
Thus, internal projects are being implementeddirectly in the organization. In this case, the performers and customers belong to its members. All work that can be attributed to the design, or the performance of a particular development, is carried out by the company on its own resources at the expense of its own resources.
Often such types of organization of projectsThey are used when the future work corresponds to the main type of activity. For example, when implementing a project for the implementation of any software in the manufacturing sector in the organization, there is a need for a sufficient number of specialists with the necessary skills to create such a product.
To date, it is difficult to find an enterprise,which would not be executed by internal projects. The following types can be classified as such: to improve the quality, develop logistic schemes, hold promotional events and presentations, and so on.
Types and types of projects of internal type have suchadvantage, as the lack of so-called external control. In this case, we are talking about the fact that in the absence of any penalties in contracts, an enterprise may change certain decisions regarding the timing, resources, technologies used in its implementation during the implementation of the development.
Therefore, the manager needs to be careful withusing the ability to change decisions. Any change can lead to an increase in the cost of the project. Another problem is some conservatism in their implementation. This is reflected in the lack of initiative on the part of employees who already have some skills and knowledge, but do not want to change any methods in the work, even if they are more effective. These factors lead to risks on the rise in the cost of projects.
Often managers do not need to have anySpecial knowledge for planning and successful implementation of certain developments. Due to a certain clarity and simplicity concerning goals in conjunction with the ways of achieving them, sometimes only experience in management work and common sense is sufficient.
This type assumes the implementation of works,which are offered by external customers. Particular importance in this case should be given to formalizing relations with counterparties (partners and customers) in the legal field. So, partners work out the terms of work, taking into account any legally correctly drawn up contract, according to which the fulfillment of conditions is mandatory.