Arrhythmia is a violation of the rhythm of contractionsheart. It contributes to the development of the disease, the disturbed formation of the electric pulse of the sinus node or its spread in the conduction system of the heart, accompanied by atypical drivers of the heart rhythm, which are located outside the sinus node.
Sinus arrhythmia is caused by congenitaldisorders of the conduction system of the heart, organic changes in the heart muscle as a result of diseases (myocarditis, cardiosclerosis), as well as hormonal disorders (thyrotoxicosis), functional disorders and a decrease in the level of potassium in the blood, toxic (in case of overdose) effects of medications.
The norm of the sinus rhythm is sixty-eighty cardiac contractions per minute.
Sinus arrhythmia is divided into tachyarrhythmia, bradyarrhythmia and extrasystole.
Sinus tachyarrhythmia occurs in the case ofrapid heart rate, which has more than eighty cardiac contractions per minute. The pulse becomes more frequent in case of anxiety, excitement, stress, and physical activity. This is normal.
Tachyarrhythmia is observed when rapidpalpitation is observed at rest. This state of the body signals a disease. It is necessary to determine the exact cause of the rapid pulse, and then apply the treatment. The most common cause of tachyametry are problems with the thyroid gland, diseases of the autonomic nervous system, circulatory disorders.
Symptomatic includes heart rate overeighty beats per minute (tachycardia) and a feeling of heart beating. The danger is that the heart at intensive work does not have enough time to fill up with blood, therefore the blood pressure decreases and the blood supply of organs and tissues worsens. As a result, coronary heart disease and even a heart attack may develop.
The second sinus arrhythmia - bradyarrhythmia - occurs at a reduced heart rate (less than sixty beats per minute).
The prerequisites for occurrence are endocrine disorders, coronary heart disease, myocarditis, sclerotic changes in the myocardium, prolonged fasting, sinus node weakness syndrome.
Signs of bradyarrhythmia are a weakened pulse in a calm state (bradycardia), as well as weakness, dizziness, pain in the heart, fainting.
The development of the disease contributes to the violation of blood circulation and brain hypoxia. Cardiac arrest and fainting can cause a weakened pulse up to forty beats per minute.
Extrasystole is a sinus arrhythmia, withwhich the heart muscle or its separate site (atrium, ventricle) contract prematurely. The cause of the development of the disease is, in most cases, psycho-emotional overload, electrolyte imbalance (potassium deficiency), excessive consumption of tea and coffee, smoking.
With the normalization of nutrition, lifestyle and rejection of bad habits, the symptoms of the disease are inferior.
Another cause of extrasystole is myocardial damage caused by cardiosclerosis, myocardial dystrophy, ischemic heart disease.
Sinus extrasystole manifests itself in cardiac fading, interruptions in his work or sudden heart pushes, a recurrent feeling of anxiety, a sense of lack of air.
Cardiac output decreases as a result of frequentextrasystoles. As a consequence, blood flow in the brain, kidney and coronary arteries decreases, angina attacks occur, and cerebral circulation is impaired.
Sinus arrhythmia: treatment
If the basis of arrhythmia is functionaldisorder, then medication is not required. Proper nutrition, ordering the working day and the rhythm of life helps to eliminate arrhythmias. Often the doctor recommends taking light sedatives with a plant foundation.
Sinus arrhythmia, which developed against the background of diseases of internal organs, is treated with medical drugs. Sometimes cardiac pacemakers and surgery are used.