The essence of culture: the main approaches
Culture is, above all, a certain levelperfection of skill, its value. This is some combination of ideal objects that are created by humanity in the process of its development. From the point of view of culture, any object can be considered, or a process that has not only practical significance, but also a special value of coloring the world.
The essence of culture lies in the creative activity of man. After all, he knows this world, receives objective knowledge, and the main role in the variety of this knowledge is played by art and science.
The concept and essence of culture is considered inseveral concepts. For example, the socio-attributive conception considers it as an integral part of the human society. In this sense, culture embraces all the phenomena created by man himself. And also everything that is created with the help of the human mind. Accordingly, it can be divided into spiritual and material.
The essence of culture in an anthropocentric wayconcept is based on ethical standards. Within its framework, material and spiritual production plays a secondary role. And on the foreground come out worldview beliefs, aesthetic tastes, which directly and make a person a person. In the light of this concept, phenomena such as violence, sword, bomb and the like are anti-cultural elements and can not exist.
The transcendental concept defines essenceculture as a super social phenomenon. However, it can not be limited to historical events or personal perceptions. It is defined as something beyond the bounds, as all phenomena pass, and culture remains. In particular, world religions, technology and science, as well as art, are independent. Within the framework of this concept, values live in eternity and can not in any way be related to time and space.
The essence of culture is not only in museumsand archives, but also in man. After all, an individual can not live apart from culture. It is in culture and through its prism that a person can realize himself and use the potential inherent in nature in full force.
Also, when discussing the essence of culture, it is worthwhileattention to the notion of political culture. This concept took shape in the concept in the middle of the twentieth century, the essence of which lies in the fact that political processes in any case are subject to long-established internal laws that directly apply to both culture and politics.
The essence of political culture is,that it represents a set of ideas about the national and socio-political community, about the entire political life, as well as the rules and laws of functioning.
This concept is considered in two maindirections. The first is subjectivist or behavioristic, in the understanding of which political culture is limited to the sphere of political consciousness and is viewed as a subjective attitude of the individual to politics.
The second direction is objectivism, which considers political culture not only in connection with the system of orientations and beliefs, but also its close connection with political activity.
As for the components of political culture, it includes:
- political positions, in particular, their emotionally-sensual side;
- worldview beliefs, attitudes and orientations that are addressed to the political system, they include knowledge of politics;
- samples of political behavior that are recognized in a particular society.
Culture - a very complex and multifaceted phenomenon, so its study - a fairly time-consuming, as well as a painstaking process.