Management principles in management, their classification and approaches
Let's consider the principles of management in management in more detail. As already noted, they are of two kinds: general and private.
Principles of management in general managementimply a universal character and extend their influence to virtually all branches of the economy and the sphere of government in it. Such general principles can be considered the following categories: systematic, purposeful, stimulating, discipline, competence, hierarchy.
As far as private principles are concerned, theyrule, have a local character and are engaged in the regulation of individual managerial processes, in a particular industry or a separate enterprise. These principles are developed by each enterprise or industry independently, in accordance with the need or the established traditions, culture or requirements.
Like all activities, management alsosubject to the subordination of laws that define different boundaries and restrictions. The principles of management in management also must be subject to the laws and restrictions that they make.
The principles themselves are not uncommon and define certaincriteria and requirements for the management of the organization, they can describe what should be the head of the enterprise, and help create a certain basis for effective management.
In this case, the individual leader is not obliged todirectly and accurately follow the principles of management, ideally the leader himself must form them, independently based on the basic positions of such principles formulated by well-known scientists in the field. But often leaders take as their basis, some principles and simply adjust them to their needs on the basis of the need and the environment, in addition to general principles that are uniform for all with minor changes.
An example of one of the general principles can be consideredprinciple of competence. And it works for all managers, since an incompetent (incompetent) leader can not effectively manage the enterprise.
Private principles should not at all contradict the general. As already mentioned above, for private principles, each organization as management object management is considered separately. And it is these management principles in management that allow us to show all the resourcefulness and ingenuity of the leader. As a result, when analyzing particular principles, one can judge the characteristics of management at the enterprise, the entire industry or the head.
Classification of management methods in management not infrequently gives ground for the development of particular principles.
Consider such basic principles of management inmanagement as a planned and goal-oriented, discipline and stimulation, all of the listed principles may differ depending on the country (nation). For example, approaches in Japan to a disciplinary principle are fundamentally different from the views on this principle among other countries. The main difference of this principle is not that the subordinate simply can not, will not submit to the leader, no, the essential difference is that in the Japanese version the leader and the subordinate work using methods of voluntary implementation, rather than imposing as in the American management model. Such different approaches point to the fact that despite the fact that the common principles are uniform for all, they can be fulfilled in completely different ways, taking into account the mentality of the people and the cultural historical traditions that have developed in the society. If Japan adheres to the principles of Eastern ideology, then the United States puts above all the independence of a person as an individual, which often gives rise to outbursts of disobedience in the management environment. And for the US, this is not considered a bad indicator of an enterprise or organization.