Atrial scotoma: causes and treatment
In modern ophthalmology there areseveral hundred different pathologies and ailments. All of them differ in the origin, clinical picture and methods of treatment. Among all the variety of diseases, focal scotoma deserves special attention. This is what will be discussed in this article.
Description of the disease
Under ciliary scotoma is commonly understoodophthalmic disease, which is accompanied by a visual impairment. It may be preceded by various pathologies of the main vessels of the visual centers. The clinical picture in many respects resembles a simple migraine: a visual aura in the form of glare, "flies" before the eyes and "blind spots". Therefore, in the medical reference books one can find another name for the pathology - "eye migraine".
The visual symptoms that usually precedeattacks, create physical and emotional discomfort. In this condition, the patient can not drive, work in production or move without assistance. Eyelid migraine (ciliated scotoma) proceeds painlessly, but requires qualified care of doctors. However, before the appointment of a specialist, the specialist must determine the causes that triggered the development of the disease.
The main causes of the disorder
Atrial scotoma is a neurological disease, the development of which is caused by a disruption in the functioning of the cerebral cortex. It is here that the visual analyzer is located.
Symptoms of the disease are known to doctors for a long time, buthere are the reasons for the occurrence of such a disorder and to date have not been fully studied. Based on the research and the features of the clinical picture, physicians identified 5 main factors contributing to the development of the disease. Among them:
- Frequent emotional stress.
- Permanent mental overstrain.
- Long, periodic exposure to flickering light.
- Systematic violation of the regime of work and rest.
- Hormonal disorders.
Also among the causes of the disease are the genetic predisposition. Approximately 70% of patients inherited an ailment from their next of kin.
Quite often in adolescents 14-16 yearsciliated scotoma. The causes of the disorder are associated with the rapid growth of the body and the active development of the circulatory system. Also for the transitional age, excessive CNS loadings are characteristic.
Each person has atrial scotoma symptoms can have different. There is a whole group of common signs that can help you to recognize the disorder in time.
The first symptom is the appearance of a blind spot inline of sight. It can move or change in size. In some cases, the disease is accompanied by the appearance of strange fuzzy objects. It can be colored or black and white figures and other fantasy forms. Such manifestations, as a rule, occur simultaneously in both eyes. An attack of ocular migraine can last up to 30 minutes. Some patients at this time have a feeling of nausea.
Variety of ailment
There are several varieties of the pathological process, each of which differs in its own clinical picture.
- Retinal form. It is characterized by the formation of a paracentral or central scotoma at the onset of an attack. However, its shape and dimensions can vary. Blindness is not excluded for one or both eyes. The visual aura persists for a few minutes.
- Ophthalmoplegic form. With this type of disease, the work of the so-called oculomotor nerve is disrupted. The whole process is accompanied by the omission of the eyelid and mydriasis. Sometimes the disease is complicated by the development of paralytic strabismus.
- Associated basilar migraine. The pathological process is characterized by a bilateral vision disorder and ophthalmoparesis, which signals a brain damage.
Determining the form of the disease allows you to choose the most effective therapy.
Many people make their own diagnosis"Ciliary scotoma". Photos of the symptoms of this pathology can be found in medical reference books or on the World Wide Web. In fact, this approach is incorrect, and the lack of timely treatment often leads to sad consequences.
If the attack happened only once and was caused by a changeclimate or overwork, it is enough to take an anti-inflammatory agent and let the body rest. If the malaise occurs intermittently, it is worth asking for help from a doctor.
To identify the cause of the disorder, an ophthalmologistmust conduct an inspection. During this procedure, a specialist can measure the size of the patient's field of vision, assess the pupil's movements and the functions of the eye apparatus. Additionally, MRI or CT and angiography are prescribed. If the preliminary diagnosis is confirmed, the patient is referred to a neurologist. It is this specialist that deals with the treatment of ocular migraine.
What should be the treatment for the diagnosis of ciliary scotoma? Therapy is selected taking into account the cause of the pathological process.
If it is based on nervous disorders,shows the use of sedative drugs (Novopassit, tincture of valerian). The positive effect is provided by medicines that improve cerebral circulation ("Piracetam", "Emoxipine"). All patients without exception are prescribed non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (Ibuprofen, Solpadein).
Recently in the course of therapy, doctors ofteninclude triptans. The effect of these drugs is aimed at narrowing the blood vessels. Despite the numerous positive properties, they have a number of contraindications. For example, their use is not recommended for patients with cardiac pathologies, arterial hypertension.
Traditional medicine for migraine attacks recommends rubbing the essential oil of peppermint into the zone of the temples. Reduce the pain of discomfort helps tea with raspberries.
Peculiarities of the disease in pregnant women
Atrial scotoma does not bypass evenwomen in the state. Most often, the symptoms of the disorder are observed in the first trimester. This contributes to an unhealthy diet, a change in the usual schedule, insomnia against a background of imbalance of hormones. By the beginning of the second trimester, malaise usually disappears.
Self-management of the disease is notit is recommended, since many drugs are prohibited during pregnancy. Without prior consultation with a doctor, you should not use traditional medicine recipes.
It is possible to significantly reduce the frequency of attacks of atrial scotoma during pregnancy if one adheres to the following recommendations:
- completely eliminate physical labor;
- more often and more time spend in the fresh air;
- avoid stressful situations;
- include in the diet more fruits and vegetables.
With these tips, some women have a scintillating scotoma that disappears forever.
Methods of prevention
When a person has already experienced several attacksocular migraines, he knows the reasons for their appearance. Therefore, prevention of the disease consists in preventing such conditions, when the risk of the disorder grows. The preventive measures offered by doctors can look different. One patient enough to give up the addictions, others need more rest, and the third - to stop taking hormonal drugs. All patients without exception, doctors advise to normalize the mode of work and rest, avoid excessive stress and stress. </ span </ p>