Heart rhythm disturbance
The work of the myocardium is divided into two phases - systoles anddiastole. Violation of the rhythm of the heart, that is, disruptions in the sequence of systole and diastole and rhythm of work are called arrhythmia. In the case of a decrease in the diastole period, the myocardium does not have time to recover, and as the systole period decreases, the body is not fully provided with nutrients and sufficient blood volume.
Violation of the rhythm of the heart involvesa diverse and complex classification. With sinus bradycardia, the normal rhythm drops below 60 cuts per minute, while the cardiac complex on the ECG remains unchanged. In this case, the violation of the rhythm of the heart can be a consequence of diseases of the thyroid gland, hypothermia, brain tumors, poisoning with fungi, etc.
Slow heart rhythm is often observed in athletes. With sinus tachycardia, there are more than 100 beats per minute. The heart complex also does not change.
Heart rhythm disorder occurs afterstressful situations, poisoning, physical exertion, due to heart failure and thyroid diseases. Violation of the rhythm of the heart with an emergency reduction of the myocardium is called extrasystole.
The most dangerous violation of the rhythm of the heartcalled paroxysmal tachycardia, in which there is a sharp and causeless increase in the work of the heart to 200 beats per minute. The attack can last for several hours and ends suddenly. Atrial fibrillation is an absolutely wrong rhythm and is also the most dangerous form of the disease. There are no reliable reasons for the onset of the disease to date.
Violation of the rhythm of the heart in children can develop inthe result of anomalies of development. It is believed that the causes of arrhythmia are disorders of nervous and endocrine regulation of the rhythm, organic and functional factors, as well as acquired anomalies of the anatomical structure.
Diagnosis of heart rhythm disturbances is carried out on the basis of ECG, Holter monitoring, echocardiography. In some cases, use electrophysiological methods of diagnosis.
Heart rhythm disturbance: treatment
Treatment of violations of heart rate irregularities independs on the type of disease, possible causes and other factors. Therapy is prescribed only after careful examination and under full medical supervision. Physicians should be treated with all suspicions of cardiac muscle disruption. Untimely and ineffective treatment can lead to death.
Often, arrhythmias occur against the background of psychogenicdisorders, such as various neuroses, corticovascular reflexes. Therefore, the therapy in these cases is aimed at eliminating the factors that led to violations of the heart. With organic heart lesions, such as myocarditis, myocardiopathy,
heart diseases, treatment of the underlying disease is prescribed. In toxic
damage to the myocardium, which are most often the result of an overdose
medicines, detoxification therapy is prescribed. Pathology
glands of internal secretion (pheochromocytoma, hypothyroidism, thyrotoxicosis) also
is to be treated to avoid disturbances in the work of the heart. Causes of arrhythmias
electrolyte shifts, disruptions in the exchange processes of magnesium and potassium, including
hypokalemia due to the intake of cardiac saluretics, glycosides and other
means, as well as traumatic injuriesheart muscle. An important role in heart rhythm disturbances is played by age-related changes, which are expressed in the weakening of the nervous effects on the heart and a decrease in the automatism of the sinus node. Treatment in this case is aimed at eliminating negative factors.