The human foot is that part of the human body,which most distinguishes bipedal people from primates. Every day, it has a huge load, so the vast majority of people in one way or another has problems associated with it. A person's foot is constantly influenced by several factors: physical activity, general health, occupation, pressure of shoes. All of them can lead to diseases of this body.
To understand how to reduce the negativethe impact of various factors affecting the health of the lower extremities, it is necessary to study what the human foot consists of. This organ includes joints and bones; tendons and ligaments; nerves; muscles; blood vessels. The skeleton of the human foot consists of 26 bones grouped into 3 sections: proximal (tarsal, talus, navicular, heel, cuboid, medial, medial and lateral sphenoid bones), metatarsus (consisting of five short bones located between the phalanx and tarsus), fingers (14 bones that make up the segments (phalanges)). It is noteworthy that the thumb has 2 phalanges, and all the rest - 3.
Anatomy of a person's foot is due to ourthe ability to walk on two legs. What is this body? Its bone base is the talus bone, tightly connected to the tibia. They form the ankle joint. The main burden of body weight is on the heel and metatarsal bones. Five metatarsal bones connect with the phalanges of the fingers. The skeleton of the foot is connected by ligaments that are responsible for the integrity of the joints. An important role is played by tendons, which unite muscles with bones. Strength and elasticity of these tissues impart collagen fibers, which are intertwined with each other in the form of a rope. The most important tendon of the foot is the so-called "Achilles", which is a continuation of the gastrocnemius muscle. It is attached to the calcaneus. It is this that allows a man to climb on his toes and bend his feet. The tendon that extends from the posterior tibialis muscle provides turns inside, supports the arches of the foot. Small ligaments connect bones. Some of them form a capsule, surrounding the articular parts of the bones. It is filled with joint fluid.
The human foot includes many muscles: soles, back, inter-stems. Among them there are flexion and extensor. In their thickness there are nerves, the main of which is the tibial. Descending from under the inner ankle, he appears on the foot. This nerve provides movement of a large number of muscles of the foot, gives it sensitivity. Well, and for the blood supply of this organ there are two arteries: the hind tibia and the anterior tibia. One of them passes in the sole and divides there into two branches. The second (anterior) passes in front of the foot, forming an arc. Venous outflow is carried out by means of two superficial (large and small subcutaneous) and two deep veins (posterior and anterior tibial).
In the human foot there are special "vaults". It is constructed as an elastic arch, ending with fingers and a heel. The bones of the foot are two arches - transverse and longitudinal. In a healthy person, the load on the lower limb is distributed evenly and in accordance with the phases of the step or run. The person's foot rests on the floor behind (calcaneal tubercle) and in front (metatarsal bones), which provides her with good spring properties.