Organizational structure: characteristics and main groups
The organizational structure is aThe management system, which takes into account the composition, subordination and interaction of the main elements. As practice shows, there are links between them, which are divided into several groups. Let us consider them in more detail.
Linear relations are necessary ifbetween departments of different levels in management there is direct subordination. In this case, the lower-level manager is subordinate only to the immediate supervisor.
Functional relations are characterized by the presence of interaction of managers who perform a number of functions at all levels. Between them there is no administrative subordination.
Cross-functional links exist between branches of the same level in management.
The organizational structure has a special typology. Let us dwell on its characteristics in more detail.
The linear organizational structure isThe most simplified system, within which there is only one-channel interaction. Each subordinate has only one leader who gives sole orders, controlling and guiding the actions of the employee.
Analysis of the organizational structure of the enterprise, drawn up on the basis of linear links, allows us to distinguish its following advantages:
- clarity of relationships;
- high degree of responsibility of individual managers;
- Low maintenance costs for the staff of managers.
Linear control is ideal for small businesses.
Line-HQ Organizational StructureUsed in managing departments and shops. In this case, one-man management is preserved, when the manager prepares decisions, assignments and orders for the performers. But this is done with the help of analysts who collect, analyze and synthesize information. It is these departments that develop draft regulations and documents.
Functional organizational structureprovides for a division of functions in the management between departments and departments. This will make it possible to disperse and entrust the administrative and managerial work to more qualified personnel. For such a system to be effective, a complex reconciliation between services is necessary to prepare an important document. In this case, the efficiency of the entire work is reduced, and the terms for decision-making are longer.
Divisional organizational structureimplies the presence of strategic and general corporate management functions. We are talking about financial activities, the development of the company's strategy and so on. Management usually focuses on the highest level of administration, decentralization of operational functions occurs, which is transferred to production units. As a result, there is a flexible response to external changes, the rapid adoption of management decisions and improving their quality. Among the main shortcomings can be identified that there is an increase in the number of staff chiefs and maintenance costs.
A matrix organizational structure impliesformation of subject-specialized links, project groups. They are formed from the most experienced and competent employees, who are subordinate to this leader only temporarily. After completion of work, all return to their functional unit.
In conclusion, the following should be noted. In economic practice, any system, be it the organizational structure of a restaurant, a bank or a large enterprise, uses a combination of distinguished types.