HIV - how dangerous is this virus? AIDS affects which cells? Prevention of AIDS
The AIDS virus affects the cells that make upthe immune system of the human body, so that cells can no longer protect the body from diseases. Scientists for a long time trying to develop a universal medicine for this primitive, but insidious microorganism called HIV.
The main dangers of HIV infection
This virus belongs to the group of lentiviruses, tosubgroup of retroviruses, which are characterized by a slow impact on the human body. In most cases, the main signs of diseases of this group can manifest themselves when it is too late to take decisive action.
By studying its structure, the AIDS virus can becharacterize as a substance from a double fat layer, on the upper part of which there are glycoprotein substances, resembling mushrooms, inside which is a pair of RNA chain. Thanks to this structure, it freely penetrates into the human blood cells. In this case, despite the fact that the structure of the blood cell is a much more complex construction than the HIV virus itself, it unobstructedly takes possession of the cell and completely destroys it.
Study of the virus
Because the AIDS virus affects any person outside thedepending on age or gender, the only salvation from him is that since infection occurs only when certain situations arise, it can be prevented. In addition, even if there is a situation when HIV still penetrated the body, modern drugs are able to prevent its reproduction in a timely manner and, as a result, prevent the destruction of the human immune system.
Despite the fact that scientists have long established whichcells affects the AIDS virus, some aspects of HIV infection are still unexplored. For example, exactly how the cells are destroyed, for what reason the bulk of people with this infection continue to look absolutely healthy for a fairly long period of time. These issues do not lose relevance, even though HIV is among the most studied viruses in human history.
Penetration and fixation of the virus
After penetration into the body of the AIDS virusaffects the blood cells belonging to the group of T-lymphocytes, on the surface of which there are special molecules of SD-4 and other cells that contain this receptor. It is noteworthy that for rooting and further spreading through the body the virus does not need any additional stimuli, for reproduction it needs only the cell of the infected person.
In fact, the genetic material does not just penetrate the cell, its shell completely merges with it, after which the virus begins a gradual progression.
Medicines to slow the development of the virus
To date, scientists continue to developa vaccine that must prevent the invasion of the HIV virus into the cell, so that the prevention of AIDS can become a standard procedure. Research in this area is based on the fact that in most of the viruses that exist on the planet, genetic information is encoded in the form of DNA and, with careful study, the probability of creating an active vaccine is very high. However, HIV is encoded in RNA, which in human blood is reconstructed by transferring its RNA to the DNA of the infected person with reverse transcriptase, thanks to this reincarnation, the cell is easily exposed to the HIV virus.
The AIDS virus affects the cell of an infected person induring the first 12 hours from the time of infection, while it begins to perceive the viral DNA as its own, fully submitting to the commands it contains. At this stage, infection with the virus can be prevented by taking antiretroviral drugs that are part of a group of reverse transcriptase inhibitors.
Obeying the commands that give the infectedcell, the components of the virus begin the program of reproduction of various components of the virus, which later in the same cells undergo a stage of rough "assembly" into a new full virus. Despite the fact that the newly formed virus can not immediately infect the next cell, splitting off from the DNA cell that produced it, it comes into contact with another enzyme of the virus called proteases. It completely forms a new viral cell, after which it acquires the ability to infect, and the AIDS virus strikes the next cell.
In detail considering the question of how much he livesAIDS virus, one should pay attention to the fact that some cells with a long life span, for example, macrophages and monocytes, can carry a large number of viruses at once and at the same time continue to function without perishing.
In fact, they are full-fledged reservoirsfor the HIV virus. It is for this reason, even with the timely administration of an antiviral drug, that there is no guarantee that AIDS has not strengthened in such a cell, where it, although it is not active, will become absolutely immune to the effects of drugs. Consequently, the virus can not be removed from the body completely, and it can manifest at any time.
Development of the virus from the moment of infection
The virus in each person progresses withindividual speed. Some patients become ill during the first few years after infection, and the rest more than 10-12 years later, everything depends on additional factors. The rate of development of the virus can be affected by:
- Individual features of the body.
- Nervous system.
- Conditions of life.
In most cases, infection occurs inthe result of the blood of an infected person getting into the bloodstream uninfected - this can happen with multiple injections with a disposable syringe or as a result of transfusion of contaminated blood. HIV infection is also common during unprotected intercourse or through the oral cavity.
What happens as a result of infection?
The period of active manifestation of antibodies to HIVis up to three months, after which an immunologist or a venereologist can reveal them in the blood with the help of a blood test for HIV infection. Even with a positive result, the analysis must necessarily be repeated, only after that the person is informed of the disease.
Despite the fact that prevention of AIDS couldsignificantly reduce the prevalence of the disease, the probability of infection exists for any person. At the same time, the cells of the human immune system, having detected the AIDS virus, act in their usual way. They capture the virus at the point of detection and carry it directly to the lymph nodes, where the complete destruction of the virus should be accomplished. However, once the virus reaches the target, it begins to accelerate progressively in the body.
Most of the infected people are exposedthe effect of an acute form of infection - viremia, as a result of which the protective functions of the body are reduced at once by half, and the person begins to feel the same symptoms as in ARVI. After several months of fighting infection, the AIDS virus dies, but only partially. Most HIV elements still manage to take root in the cells. After that, the level of T-4 lymphocytes almost completely restores the previous indices. In most cases, a person after the transfer of the acute form of the virus does not even suspect that his body is accelerating the progress of HIV infection, because no obvious manifestation of the virus does not.
As today effectivedrugs for HIV infection have not yet been developed, and existing drugs only slow down the development of the virus, AIDS prevention is the only effective method to avoid infection.
Most people believe that they can getthe AIDS virus, even with everyday contact with an infected person, but this is not entirely true. You can safely exist next to an infected person, but you should know that there are a number of diseases that significantly increase the risk of infection. For example, sexually transmitted diseases or anal intercourse. Be sure to follow the rules of personal safety in the intimate sphere and lead a healthy lifestyle in order to avoid getting infected with such a dangerous virus as AIDS.