/ / Cornea: norm or pathology?

Cornea: normal or pathological?

Bone callus is formed when the bone is joined. It can be of four types.

Intermediary corns are formed between tightcontacting bone fragments if the maximum immobility of their fragments is observed. This space is filled with cells of Havers systems and sprouts vessels. This is the true healing of the bone.

While retaining the mobility of the fragments, as well asDiastase vascularization becomes significantly complicated, if at all possible. In this case, the callus is represented by the following species: parasomal, periosteal, endosteal.

Parasitic callus is formed from soft tissues,which are adjacent to the site of the fracture. Such a callus is more pronounced if these tissues were significantly injured in a fracture or directly during the treatment itself. Parasomal corn is a kind of jumper or "bridge", thrown between the bone fragments. Sometimes it can reach considerable dimensions, but this does not guarantee the strength of the fusion.

If the normal callus after the fracture did not form, then the development of fractures of parasol canal, even with minor loads, is possible.

Periostalny corn is formed by reproductioncambial cells of the periosteum, which are well supplied with blood and possess good regenerative abilities. Such a callus is located outside the bone.

Endostal corneum is formed from endosteal cells, as well as bone marrow cells. It is located from the inside, from the side of the bone marrow channel.

When creating favorable conditions for adhesionthe bone first forms a periosteal and endosteal bone calluses, which ensure that the bone fragments are held motionless until an intermediate corneal is formed, after which they are reduced. Intermediary callus then changes, taking the structure of normal bone. This fusion is optimal: the best restoration of the bone in the shortest possible time.

If the displacement of fragments is preserved, the fusionoccurs at the expense of the periosteum with the formation of periosteal corns. Diaphyseal fractures in the corn formation process pass the stage of the cartilaginous tissue, but the healing of the spongy bone passes without it: the connective tissue corn is transformed immediately into the bone and the periosteal callus is not expressed.

So how should bone callus be treated? Treatment should be carried out to eliminate the fracture, to form an intermediate corn, which after transformation is transformed into a bone of normal structure. The final transformation takes about a year.

To treat a fracture, a reposition of the bonefragments, their strong fixation during the entire period of adhesion, as well as auxiliary methods: physiotherapy, physiotherapy exercises, massage, which are aimed at restoring the full functioning of the damaged structure. In addition, primary treatment of the wound plays an important role in the treatment of open fractures.

Reposition and fixation are carried out with the help ofconservative and operational methods. Conservative therapy of fractures is carried out both outpatiently and in a hospital (this is determined by the nature of the fracture), operatively only in the hospital. Both methods are widely used in traumatology, their use is due to clear indications in each case.

The reposition of the fragments is carried out either manually or by stretching. After reaching the normal state of the fragments, immobilization is carried out, most often with a plaster bandage.

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