Structure of pedagogical science: traditions and innovations
Pedagogy, like any other science,develops, enriches its theoretical base, fills the practical part with new content. The system and structure of pedagogical science, which consists of a large number of different branches and sections, has developed and continues to improve. Consider them in order.
The basic discipline that the structurepedagogical science puts in the forefront, is the general pedagogy. She explores the general patterns of upbringing and education and includes sections: introduction to the profession of the teacher, the general foundations of science, the theory of education, didactics, the theory of management of educational and educational processes, the methodology of pedagogy, and the history and philosophical foundations of science.
Further the list continues age pedagogics,the subject of study of which is the educational process, depending on the age category of the person. In turn, age pedagogy consists of such sections as perinatal, nursery, preschool, school, professional and pedagogy of higher education. Recently, the system and structure of pedagogical science in terms of age has been supplemented with new sections. This is androgyny and pedagogy of the third age, which the subject of studying chose the educational and educational process of retirees.
An important place is the structure of pedagogical scienceassigns a special pedagogy, which is otherwise called defectology or correctional science. It has 4 large sections. This is surdopedagogy, typhlopedagogics, oligophrenopedagogics and speech therapy.
Among the major pedagogical branches, the structurepedagogical science emphasizes professional pedagogy. Its main object of study is an educational and educational process that focuses on the specific sphere of production and training of specialists for a particular field of human activity. There are industrial, military, medical and other types of sciences in this field.
Great importance in the structure of pedagogical sciencegives relatively new science - social. It is designed to help people and especially children correctly go through the process of socialization of the individual and is mainly engaged in the development of extracurricular methods of education and upbringing.
Further, we briefly enumerate and characterizeother sections: medical, family, gender (corrective behavior of the child depending on gender), ethno-pedagogy, correctional labor, teaching methods of various subjects and comparative pedagogical science (compares pedagogical schools of different countries and peoples, as well as identifying the best sides of foreign systems upbringing and education for use in the national school).
The functioning of pedagogy would be inadequate if there was no special infrastructure for pedagogical science. It includes:
- Legal conditions. These are state decrees and resolutions, as well as documents that determine the policy of the state in this sphere. Among the main: the Constitution of the Russian Federation, the Law on Education of the Russian Federation.
- Economic conditions, which are represented by all property, including real estate, vehicles and technical equipment held by pedagogical organizations.
- Personnel conditions, consisting of a contingent of specialists and researchers involved in education and upbringing.
- Scientific institutions, whose center is the Russian Academy of Education.
- Libraries and other information carriers, among which the famous Library named after K.D.Ushinsky in Moscow deserved renown.
And the infrastructure of pedagogical science is being completed by a link with world centers dealing with education, which consists in the mutual exchange of information with foreign colleagues.