Manor "Mikhalkovo": description, history, location and interesting facts
Undoubtedly, the "Mikhalkovo" estate is one of thethe most interesting sights of the metropolitan metropolis, where you can usefully spend your leisure time. The territory of this walking zone is almost a hundred hectares, cozy harmonies, green plantations, shady ponds, and original sculptures harmoniously coexist. And, of course, the central part of the park is the Mihalkovo estate itself, which, unfortunately, is today in a dilapidated state, despite the loud status of the architectural monument of the 18th century.
Of course, the area of this object can not failsurprise. But the manor of Nikita Mikhalkov (director) is half as much - only fifty hectares. However, the architectural monument is attractive for tourists and Muscovites not only with their dimensions. In summer it is pleasant to walk around surrounded by lush foliage, and in winter many come to admire the beauty of the entrance towers decorated with rare kokoshniks and pinnacles that tower above snow-white drifts.
When did this unique object of Russia's cultural heritage appear, what had happened to it for centuries? Let's consider these issues in more detail.
For the first time, the "Mikhalkovo" estate appears in the scribalthe book of 1584. Its owner was Semen Fomin, who was the offspring of Tretyakov. Most likely, the name of the monument of architecture comes from the family name or the nickname of its first owner. After some time the object passes into ownership of the Novgorod employee Anton Zagoskin. However, already in the middle of the 17th century, the estate of Mikhalkovo was renamed into the fiefdom of Ivan Dashkov, who was in charge of the affairs of the Rogue Order. He built a fruit garden and several ponds on the territory, and also built a manor house made of wood.
After the death of the owner of the estate, she inheritedspouse E.R. Dashkova. However, the new owner of the estate after some time set out to go abroad, so she had to sell an architectural monument. The new owner of the Dashkovs' property was one of the tutors of Emperor Paul I NI. Panin. However, he did not often go to the estate, so the park-estate "Mikhalkovo" becomes the summer residence of the brother of the Count - Peter Ivanovich.
About what the monument is likearchitecture in the late seventies of the XVIII century, wrote the British confessor W. Cox: "The road from Moscow to this place takes about four hours. The farmstead "Mikhalkovo", located in the surroundings of the forest, consists of several wooden structures, the facades of which are painted brightly enough and colorfully. Parks, arranged in English pattern, perfectly in harmony with wide fields, meadow grasses and a large pond on the banks of which many trees grow. "
Such attractions were distinguished by an estate actually owned by the General-Anshef PI. Panin.
For information, the Mikhalkov estate (location: d. Schepachikha, Pavlovsky district, Nizhny Novgorod region) is also not devoid of natural beauties. The well-known director's estate runs along a picturesque lake, called the Holy People, because it reflects the outlines of the church.
The estate "Mikhalkovo" in Moscow was anewrebuilt in the seventies of the 18th century on the initiative of Peter Panin. Thus, he wanted to perpetuate his exploits in the war with the Turks, in which he took direct part. The architect V. Bazhenov worked on the restoration project. He also embodied in a colorful image of one of the fortresses of the Ottoman Empire, which he managed to conquer the Count. The central link in the overall plan was a semicircle (visually reminiscent of the Turkish crescent). The territory was protected, and along its perimeter, three pairs of towers, wings and marked entrances were installed. In the direction of the park, two more outbuildings and a manor house were built, which has not survived until today. The towers, mounted towards the entrances to the front yard, were decorated with original details.
Their upper parts ended with two-pronged teeth,which only emphasized their strict outlines. Fences and wings were decorated with over-the-garden decorative arrows and half-columns. Behind the manor house there was a park with several ponds, and on the shore a pavilion-pier was arranged.
After Count P. Panin died, the Mikhalkovo estate (address: Mikhalkovskaya Street, 38, building 1, CAO) began to pass from hand to hand.
The succession of new hosts
At the end of the 18th century, the owner of the estate became a merchantTurchinov, who organized the production of chintz here. The enterprise will bring a huge profit, when the farm buys a businessman Grachev. The business gained even more development after the entrepreneur Wilhelm Jokish became the new owner of the estate. In the mid-19th century, he turned the enterprise into a powerful partnership of cloth manufactory. Its products provided the needs of the entire Russian Empire. It should be noted that the proletarians, born just from Mikhaylov's peasants, spoke positively about their master, so they did not take an active part in the riots of the early 20th century.
The owner of the enterprise really favored the workers and in the early 1920s even gave money for the construction of a working town, designed by architect D. Sukhov.
It should be noted that the organization of the factory atThe territory of the architectural monument negatively affected its appearance. The wings were rebuilt, the towers were laid, the decorative wall was destroyed, and some territories were given to the suburban areas.
After the revolution
Shortly before the October events in the territorythe estate was built medical medical institution, nursery, and one of the manor wings handed over to the school. After the fall of tsarism in Russia, the Bolsheviks nationalized the famous manufactory for the manufacture of cloth. At the enterprise began to make various fabrics for tailoring.
Manor at the time of WWII
At the beginning of the Great Patriotic War, through the territory of the estate, one of the lines of defense of Moscow passed.
The soldiers, hiding in the fire points, were ready to face the enemy face to face. By 1945, from the oak grove, there was practically nothing left, because there was an acute need for firewood.
In the middle of the 20th century in the park-estate "Mikhailovo"One more restoration was made: trees were planted, alleys laid. Noteworthy is the fact that it was then on the territory of the monument of architecture that a plaster statue of the Komsomol member Zoya Kosmodemyanskaya appeared, which, it turns out, lived in the neighboring Koptevo. In the era of the USSR, children's attractions were created on the territory of the estate, but now they are certainly not there.
One of the main attractions of the manor is the Bolshoy, Maly and Upper Golovinsky ponds.
All of them are connected by channels, through whichbridges are thrown. In the early 40-ies were carried out hydrotechnical works, as a result of which the ponds began to flow Volga water through the Moscow canal. On the shore, now everyone is relaxing here.
Another object that attracts attention isIt is the Golovinsky Monastery, built in 1886. During the period of collectivization, the Soviet government banned the service, and all church values were withdrawn. The building itself was converted to various needs. Here, the club, the warehouse, and the clinic for commanders were equipped. Subsequently, the cathedral builders were converted into a multi-storey house. In the 1970s, a residential microdistrict began to be built here, so all the monastic objects were destroyed, the former greatness of the Golovinsky monastery was reminiscent of only a three-tiered bell tower, which was not touched.
Manor in modern days
Currently, the estate has lost some of its original appearance. Large-scale works on restoration were carried out during the period from 1994 to 2006.
Some elements of the architectural ensemble are stillmanaged to restore, and the park with a cascade of ponds was also reanimated. The southern gate, the south-eastern front gate, the south-western wing, part of the massive wall decorated with buttresses, as well as the towers of the western ponds were preserved. One way or another, but today the degree of improvement of the architectural monument of the 18th century can not be considered high. Nevertheless, this object of historical heritage should be of interest to every inhabitant of our country.
The property of Russia is the park-estate Mikhalkovo. How do I get there? First we get to the metro station "Vodny Stadion", and then we take the bus №72. Some people travel on foot from the above-mentioned subway station, walking along the Golovinskoye highway, past the cemetery.