Dugout is a rescue for soldiers
The dugout is a field shelter performingfunction of protecting the military against the damaging factors of the enemy's weapons, as well as a safe place for rest and sleep. It is made in the form of a depression in the earth. The floor, walls and ceiling are made of wooden flat boards or round logs. But if there are no trees in the vicinity, then the dugout is laid out of stone. Above, the structure is lined with a protective metal flooring, which is able to withstand the direct hit of the projectile and save the soldiers from imminent death. All this construction is covered with a layer of turf for camouflage.
Of the furniture in the dugout there are basically bunk beds, a large table and long benches built from the same boards that were used to build a shelter.
The dugout can be supplied with electricity,ventilation and heating device. But any attempt to make it more comfortable for soldiers to live reduces the percentage of protection, for example, from radioactive fallout after the explosion. A winter-flooded stove to heat an underground room with a traitorous black smoke against white snow will tell the enemy about the location of the soldiers' shelter. The more tightly the dug-out is, the more reliable it is to protect it from the consequences of the explosion, so there are no windows or doors in it. From it you can not shoot or use a room for military operations, you can only hide in it.
As a rule, the military dug-out is hastilybuilt shelter, for which material is used, available near military operations. Modern dugouts are made of finished materials, for example, from steel sheets in the form of an arc, which in the assembled state represent a circle. It is psychologically difficult to be in a metal shelter: there is a feeling of a sealed pit, sealed from all sides.
Depending on the number of people involved in the construction, it can take from two to four days to build it.
The flooring, performing the function of protection, is made of steel or any durable material capable of withstanding a powerful blast wave.
Maximum capacity capacity, asusually up to eight people per dug-out. These are very small structures that build 20-30 pieces on the line of contact with the enemy. The distance from one dug-out to another is several meters. They are not united with each other, and the output from each dug-out is located in the side most protected from the enemy.
Origin of the word
The meaning of the word blindage is rootedTo France. Translated from French it means "cover with barriers". Dugouts have always been used in military conflicts on both sides of military operations. They were built not only to shelter warring soldiers, but also had in them field hospitals, military headquarters, warehouses with ammunition and food.
According to the type of construction dugouts are of two types: hidden in the ground and buried halfway. Basically, they built the first option, so that the enemy could not find a shelter, the location of which was considered a military secret for the opposing side. The enemy did not need to know where the dugouts were located in order to exclude the risk of targeted bombing.
The dugouts, in which ammunition was stored, were built away from shelters for soldiers' rest.
Finds of treasure hunters
Until now, in the deep forests can be founda shelter preserved from the time of the Second World War, in which remained the objects of that time. The German dugout was built of more durable materials, and sometimes also of double reinforced concrete decks, so these shelters were perfectly preserved in their original form, despite decades.
Metal detectors of treasure hunters often reacton iron spoons, thermoses, bullets and orders, buried in the dugouts of German soldiers. To this day, they find the remains of warehouses - former dugouts with ammunition, where immediately begin to work sappers.
The Russian dug-out is a less solid construction, unlike the German one, because it was built in 2-3 days, and often already in the process of conducting fights.