Machine gun PC. Modern small arms. Kalashnikov's machine gun
For any army, unification is the goal, towhich seek weapons makers. If the parts are interchangeable, and the design of different samples has similar features, then several problems are solved immediately. First, the search for spare parts in case of failure is simplified. Secondly, the training of soldiers is faster and more efficient. Third, production costs are reduced. There are other reasons to strive for standardization, they are psychological in nature, but they are also important. But if the weapon is unified, then this is not enough to consider it successful. Combat qualities are also important. Modern small arms, located in the arsenals of countries - likely adversaries, always set high demands on our samples. They should be no worse, and as far as possible better in terms of fire characteristics, easy to operate and, of course, reliable. All these requirements are met in general by the Kalashnikov machine gun, which has been in service with the Soviet and Russian armies since 1961. It is also known in many other countries, where it was exported.
The idea of a unified machine gun is not new. Almost all the armies used during the First World War "Maxim", "Gochkis" and "Colts". In the thirties, infantry and mountain troops felt the need for lighter specimens, which were called tame, as opposed to easel. Then only the specialists of the German enterprise "Rheinmetall" could complete the unification, having created their lawn-mower MG-34 (according to the year of the completion of the development, 1934). The project was led by engineer Luis Stange. This machine gun was very successful, and the soldiers of the Red Army wanted to own a similar weapon. Only after the war did they begin to receive something like this. The task was to ensure that the positive features of the two main types of machine guns (machine and manual) were combined in one sample. It should have a high rate of fire, as an ammunition for it, we use a rifle "long" cartridge (this machine, for example, differs from a submachine gun), the range of the target fire is greater than that of conventional small arms. It was precisely this model that was supposed to be adopted as one for the entire Soviet army.
In 1946, the creative "trio" of AI designers. Shilina, AA Dubinina and PP Polyakova, after carrying out a deep modernization of the proven and reliable DP-27, presented a practically new model, called RP-46. The Soviet designers of small arms used a tape feeder system, into which the feed mechanism was integrated, which was inserted into the shop. The DP-27 was not bad, but even then, in the first years of operation in the army, it was considered a temporary replacement for the outdated RPD Degtyarev. Almost all the specialized arms enterprises of the USSR started developing their own systems in the hope that it will become a single model.
Among the leaders were several design bureaus, among them the creator of the AK-47 Kalashnikov Mikhail Timofeevich, who soon introduced the first version of the PC. It happened in 1959.
Competition and competitors
After a series of intermediate tests in the final of the competition,announced by the Ministry of Defense, came out two samples. One was a PC (Kalashnikov's machine gun), the second was the work of the leading engineers of OKB-14 (the same Tula arms factory, this should be noted, since there was internal competition at the enterprise, contributing to the high quality of projects). This sample was very interesting, it reflected many of the advanced ideas of special engineering. Very successful was the idea of feeding a tape from unified boxes of two types (200 or 100 cartridges). The shutter locking assembly is also recognized as one of the best in simplicity and elegance of the engineering solution. Unusually and originally solved the issue of cutoff of powder gases. The supply of cartridges was carried out with special "fingers". In general, a very good machine gun. The PC, however, won the contest, and for that there were reasons.
The lack of the machine gun Nikitin and Sokolov
With all the virtues with which the sample was shiningNikitin and Sokolov, he still had one drawback, which was lack of reliability. No, he did not refuse at all, but he began to shoot in solitary mode, after he, inflamed in several turns, was lowered into the water. This phenomenon was caused by the thermal curvatures that appeared at the feed point. At first glance, the vice is insignificant, but in real battle conditions it could cost the calculations of life. Each time the shooter was forced to recharge, placing the PNS on the combat platoon 2-3 times manually. This delay is very dangerous. The Kalashnikov machine gun was comparatively flawless in comparative tests, he did not refuse even after he was dropped into the middle Asian aryks.
What is the difference between a PC and a Kalashnikov assault rifle? Trunk
Today the AK-47 is so famous all over the world,that there is no need to dwell on the details of its design. In Soviet times, even high school students were taught to take apart the automaton in the lessons of the initial military training. In some countries, children are able to handle this weapon at a younger age, without even learning to read and write.
Most of the constructive solutions came up andapplied the great Russian gunsmith, inventing his famous machine gun. The Kalashnikov machine gun differs from the prototype in the first place by the trunk, it is longer, made removable, and in the first modifications had a longitudinally ribbed surface for better heat transfer.
For ease of fire, the PK machine gun is equipped withbipods. Shooting in single mode is not provided for, only by bursts. The flasher type fuse works in the same way as in the AK. The capacity of the box store, of course, is increased to 100 (and even 200 for the easel version). The food is carried out with a non-scattered tape with pieces of 50 rounds, with the help of which the last one is connected. An additional handle is provided for easy carrying. The machine gun of the PC is equipped with a sight similar to the device automatic, but there is an additional bracket for installation of the night sight. To facilitate the design, the butt has a cut-through. There are other minor design features, but in general, the degree of unification of this sample is very high, most of the spare parts are interchangeable, which greatly facilitates the operation and repair. In machine guns of late releases the removable barrel is made smooth, without fins of cooling, and has a large wall thickness.
Modern small arms, ideally, not onlyas unified as possible, but also applicable for performing tasks in different conditions. The model of the PKM machine gun, developed in 1969, is intended to be used as an additional standard armor for armored vehicles. Remote control is provided by the electric outlet. At the same time, the crew can, if necessary, bring it to its original infantry state by attaching the elements (butt, bipod, handle) supplied in the set. This is done very quickly in a combat situation, the assembly is simple. The difference with the prototype is in the modified gas outlet, designed to reduce the amount of burned into the armored hull. The barrel of the tank version is longer and heavier.
From the machine gun the PC can be fired as from the regularbipods, and relying on additional devices to stabilize the line of fire. Initially, there was provided a support tripod, designed by E. S. Samokov, very comfortable, but heavy. A light version of the bed was suggested by LV Stepanov, who reduced the mass by more than three kilograms. There is also an armored troop carrier, which is called the PKB.
Within two decades of military operationThe military made various proposals to improve the characteristics of weapons, some of them were adopted, which was reflected in the code of weapons. So the machine guns of the PC and the PKK, which have the additional letter "H" in the title, can be equipped with a night sight (NSPU or PPN-3), PKS is designed to fire on enemy aircraft.
Objective parameters of the machine gun are as follows:
The standard caliber is 7.62 mm. Weight without additional devices (the so-called "body") - 9 kilograms. The length of the machine gun is 1173 mm. The bullet accelerates in the barrel to a speed of 825 m / s. At a firing rate of 650 rds / min, the combat rate of fire (medium) is 250 rds / min. Aimed fire can be fired at a distance of up to 1 km 300 m.
High performance characteristicsThe machine gun and its tremendous reliability became the factors that determined its popularity in different parts of the world. In addition to the samples produced in the USSR and exported to Vietnam, Egypt, Libya (and many more), there are also versions that have been issued in other countries under license. Sometimes the name changed, for example, to "Type 80" (PRC) or "M-84" (SFRY). In Bulgaria and Romania it was manufactured as a Kalashnikov machine gun.