Intracranial pressure and methods of its measurement
Intracranial pressure is that pressure,which is created by the volumes of brain tissue, cerebrospinal fluid and blood inside the skull. In fact, this indicator is of great importance. The fact is that normal intracranial pressure creates all the necessary conditions for the functioning of the brain. At the slightest violation of it, irreversible changes in the nervous tissue can begin with all the ensuing consequences. And before asking how to determine intracranial pressure, let's see what the reasons for its change and what consequences they lead.
Intracranial pressure and the reasons for its change. The normal index of intracranial pressure varies from 7 to 7.5 to 14 to 15 millimeters of the mercury column. Supporting the normal level of this pressure is a rather complicated mechanism. For example, if the volume of the neural tissue increases, a series of compensatory reactions is triggered, as a result of which the amount of cerebrospinal fluid decreases, but the pressure index does not change. But unfortunately, the compensatory processes of the human body are limited, and as soon as they exhaust themselves, a sudden jump in pressure occurs, which affects the work of the whole organism badly.
There are three main reasons that eitherotherwise lead to an increase in pressure? and they are all related to cerebrospinal fluid. Liqvor is a special substance that constantly circulates in the ventricles of the brain and is absorbed into the blood. In the event that too much cerebrospinal fluid is formed, it is not fully absorbed into the blood, or a violation of the flow of the cerebrospinal fluid is observed in a person, and intracranial pressure begins to increase.
But problems with the balance of cerebrospinal fluid- this is usually the result of other factors. For example, the cause of this may be a severe head injury or brain operation. Sometimes, a serious poisoning of the body, as well as previously transferred meningitis or encephalitis, can lead to an increase in pressure. In addition, problems with cerebrospinal fluid can be the result of a violation of the outflow of blood from the brain, as well as the presence of congenital pathologies in the structure of the brain.
How to check intracranial pressure? In fact, there are not so many ways to determine this indicator. But the most effective method to date is multimodal neuromonitoring, which is based on the measurement of indicators over a certain length of time.
Such a study doctors appoint patientsafter surgery on the brain, as well as people who had previously suffered encephalitis, meningitis or severe head trauma. In addition, neuromodal monitoring is indicated after a stroke, as well as hydrocephalus and hemorrhagic hemorrhage.
This method of investigation is invasive andprovides for the use of special high-frequency monitors that measure intracranial pressure. And specially developed programs perform data processing, as well as their archiving with subsequent graphic visualization of all processes. As already mentioned, the study is conducted not for one particular moment, but for some time - so the doctor can get a more accurate picture of the patient's health.
Using this method allows not onlydetermine the index of intracranial pressure. With its help, you can avoid such severe consequences as the swelling of the membranes of the brain, as well as choose the necessary treatment methods that will be individual for each patient with trauma or other brain problems.