Classification of methods of psychological research in modern science
Each science applies certain methodsresearch, they are subdivided into general methods characteristic of most sciences, and specific ones that are used by separate sciences. Classification of methods of psychological research is designed to structure and systematize the variety of methods used for conducting psychological research. Particular scientific methods are used in almost all sciences. To them O.V. Klimenko and others include:
1) analysis - the dismemberment of a certain phenomenon into separate properties or relations;
2) synthesis - the connection of various elements, sides, properties of the object into a single whole;
3) induction - a form of logical inference in the direction, for example, from private to general conclusions, from individual facts to generalizations;
4) deduction is a logical deduction from the general to the particular, from general judgments to particular conclusions;
5) modeling - replacing the real object of study with a substitute object (model), which contains the features, relationships, relations of the object under study;
6) hypothetical method - nomination on the basis of deduction of scientific assumption for the explanation of a certain phenomenon;
7) system method - associated with the construction of a system of relationships of elements that make up the object;
8) reconstruction - the semantic and structural reorganization of the phenomenon;
9) theoretical general scientific methods.
The main methods of psychological research include:
a) generalization - a mental transition from an empirical analysis of individual objects to a higher stage of abstraction by identifying common characteristics that exist in the objects under consideration;
b) formalization - a method of reflecting the results of thinking in precise terms, expressed in formulas or sign form, etc .;
c) abstraction is a method of scientific cognition based on the formation of the image of a real object with the help of a mental selection of a feature that the researcher is interested in.
Specific methods of socio-psychological research can be divided into 4 groups:
Organizational methods.Empirical (research) methods of statistical processing. Explanatory methods (methods of interpretation). Classification of methods of psychological research, including organizational methods, includes:
a) comparative (cross-section method)consists in the fact that during the organization of the study, different groups of subjects are taken on different criteria (by age, training and upbringing conditions), and then studies and data are compared in groups selected according to one criterion;
b) Longitudinal method - longitudinal study, long-term study of the same category of subjects;
c) complex method. Empirical (research) methods are among the methods of obtaining scientific data.
Empirical methods of socially psychologicalResearch includes the collection of information during observation, experimentation, testing. Observation is a purposeful and organized perception of a psychic phenomenon and requires the researcher:
1) the formulation of goals;
2) drawing up a plan-a sequence of observations;
3) compiling a surveillance program;
4) the need to develop a surveillance system;
5) fixation of observation data;
6) statistical processing, analysis and explanation of observation results. Observation can be included and not included, external and internal, hidden and open.
For example, with the help of observation it is possible to studythe amount of attention, some aspects of memorization, temperament. The experiment differs from the method of observation in that the experimenter takes an active position in comparison with the observer-observer. The experimenter creates conditions that will trigger the phenomenon that interests him. The experiment differs from testing in that it studies the dependence of data on its subject matter depending on the variability of the conditions of its conduct.
The experiment can be laboratory andnatural, formative and ascertaining. Classification of methods of psychological research is also applied to additional methods of conducting research, including: conversation, analysis of product activities, interviews, questionnaires, peer review, method of generalization of independent characteristics, biographical methodology, sociometry, referentometry.
Classification of methods of psychological research with respect to explanatory methods (methods of interpretation) allows us to distinguish:
a) the genetic method - considers phenomena on the way to its origin and development in the process of ontogenesis;
b) the structural method.
Such a generally accepted classification system allows one to effectively choose one or another method of psychological research that is relevant at the moment.