Chile: population, population, density and national composition
Chile is a state,located in the south-western part of South America. The length of the country from north to south is about 4 thousand kilometers, while the largest width is about 200 kilometers. One of the interesting features associated with the number of Chileans: the population of the country is characterized by the smallest increase in the territory of the American continent.
Demographic studies show thatDuring the colonial period, according to various sources, from 50 to 75 thousand Europeans arrived in the country. The majority of them were Basque and Spanish. In the middle of the nineteenth century about 20,000 Germans landed here. In the twentieth century, more than 100,000 representatives of Europe immigrated to Chile. The population of the country during its colonization increased by 250 thousand foreigners. This is significantly less, compared with similar indicators of neighboring South American states. Thus, now there is every reason to assert that the local ethnos is predominantly the result of a mixture of Aborigines and Spanish immigrants.
If we talk about the national composition, it is customaryConsider that the population of Chile consists of three main groups. The first is indigenous peoples. They account for about 7% of the total number of residents living in the territory of the state. The most famous aborigines here are Araucans, of which there are more than one million people. The rest of the nations are not so numerous. Moreover, some of them are on the verge of extinction.
The second ethnic group is HispanicChileans, representing the descendants of the first colonizers of the country. Their mixing with the indigenous population led to the fact that currently they account for about 92% of the country's population.
The third group is Europeanimmigrants. As already mentioned above, most of them were Spaniards and Basques. In the early twentieth century, Chile also immigrated to numerous immigrants from Britain, France, Germany, Italy and Croatia. As of today, the diaspora of each of these countries has about half a million people.
It is impossible not to mention the inhabitants of Easter Island,owned by Chile. They are predominantly Polynesians. In addition, the territory of the state is home to quite influential communities of Swiss, Jewish, Dutch and Greek.
The population of Chile, whose number istoday it is slightly more than 17 million people, it is customary to divide into three age categories. The youth account for about a quarter of the country's residents, and for the elderly, only 8%. The average life expectancy of women is 80 years, while for men it is 73.3 years. As already noted above, the state is characterized by a very low average annual increase in the number of inhabitants, which, starting from the eighties of the twentieth century, did not rise above the level of 1.7%. Together with this, we can not fail to mention the significant decrease in the recent level of infant mortality.
The rather uneven distribution of residents isanother feature of Chile. The population of the country is concentrated mainly in the central regions of the country. They are home to about 67% of people. If the average population density in the country is 22 people per square kilometer, then in its capital Santiago, it reaches a mark of 355 citizens. This is the maximum figure for Chile. In the northern regions, for every square kilometer, an average of up to three people, and in the southern - no more than one. Aborigines live mainly in the south. Together with this, we can not fail to note the tendency towards the gradual migration of Indians to the urban area.
The state language is Spanish. This is not surprising, since for most Chileans, he is a native. The indigenous population of Chile could largely preserve many varieties of dialects of its ancestors. Along with this, Spanish is used for teaching in schools, as well as for most of the Aboriginal people to communicate with each other.
Most of the locals profess Catholicism. They account for about 70% of all believing Chileans. About 15% of the local residents refer themselves to various Protestant movements (usually Pentecostals). Indians basically remain faithful to traditions, therefore profess their religions. It should be noted that the Roman Catholic Church plays an important role not only in the social, but also in the political life of the country. In particular, it actively participates in carrying out various reforms on the territory of the state.
Urbanization and employment
In general, the state is considered one of the mosturbanized throughout South America. The urban population of Chile is about 86% of the country's inhabitants, a large part of which is concentrated in two central areas, such as Santiago and Valparaiso. The largest cities of the country were founded in the colonial era, which is why the ethnic composition of their inhabitants is not surprising. They are mainly descendants of Spanish conquerors and local natives. The rural population of the country mainly lives in resorts and in small settlements.
The main occupation of Chile's population is the sphereservices, industry and agriculture. For each of these industries, respectively, 63, 23 and 40 percent of the total number of able-bodied citizens. As for the unemployment rate in the state, it is at the level of 8.5%.