The use value is what?
The basic properties of the goods are evaluated within the framework ofstudying its essence. The basic concept in this category is use-value. In accordance with this theory, any product is an object, designed to meet those or other needs of people. Therefore, the value of the value is directly dependent on the consumer qualities and properties of the product.
The main property of goods
The use value is a concept thatvisually displays not only the consumer properties of a certain thing, but also its usefulness for people. That is, in the course of acquiring a certain product, not only the quality, but also the totality of its basic properties, the degree of utility, that is, the use properties, are always evaluated. There is a comparison of subjective indicators along with the objective for any thing or service.
Experts pay attention to the fact that qualityand use-value are more comprehensive concepts than utility. This is important to consider. And the use-value of the service is characterized by similar principles of calculation and significance.
Within the framework of the current commodity productionthe concept has acquired a special role. In the modern world, it is a kind of carrier of the material plane or material basis. It aims at production goals. Therefore, the concept of social use value for objects and services is more common in the literature.
This is explained by the fact that with modern mass production products are produced for mass, and not for their own, individual consumption. The manufacturer does not use his own products.
The main link between the stagesconsumption and production of objects - this is the social use value. Depending on its characteristics, the process of selling any product in an existing society can change. Based on this, it can be concluded that between the efficiency of the production sphere and the use value of products there is a limited relationship, as well as their quality.
Change in use value
Over time, goods and prices are notplace - there is observed their dynamic change, as well as use value. Within the framework of historical development, the concept of use value has gradually expanded, including all its new components. Parallel to this, the following trends were observed:
- expansion of useful products;
- increase in the number of consumer values in the form of services;
- the complication of technological processes in the production process;
- increase durability and quality of products.
In the modern world, use-value isthe ability to meet certain needs of people with a particular product. In fact, this is the degree of its usefulness, the possibility of realizing its purpose.
It is important to remember that these concepts are oftenreplace each other. But utility means a narrower list of product characteristics. This refers to the degree of satisfaction of people's wishes without taking into account their influence on themselves and their health.
Another feature that the concept ofuse value in the course of its many years of evolution is the fact that now it is relevant not only for goods, but also for services, as well as for consumer goods and production. That is, now it has become a kind of distinction of specific goods.
The use and exchange value
All economists are unanimous in the course of determininguse value of the goods. But often there are disputes in setting a specific value for it. Here, the role of the property of the commodity, use value and exchange value.
In accordance with the proposed labor theory, a couple of basic properties of any commodity are assumed:
- the value of exchange;
- consumer value.
A similar theory of use valuesupported such authoritative figures in history as Aristotle and K. Marx, as well as D. Riccardo and A. Smith, along with other eminent economists of different times.
All of them believe that all useful characteristicsgoods constitute its use value. They determine the ability to satisfy one or several needs for a single individual or a group of them. That is, any product has its own purpose. For example, it can be clothing, food, etc.
And the use-value necessarily must be of a public nature. This is expressed in the fact that the product is produced not for yourself, but for other people. It can be sold or exchanged.
In the modern world, competitiveness and qualitative characteristics of products are particularly valued, which, in turn, have a direct relationship with use value.
The public cost isa vast concept. But it does not in all cases characterize an object as a commodity. The fact is that all goods without exception have a characteristic feature. This is an opportunity to exchange for another product or service. It is this feature that is called in theory the exchange value.
That is, the exchange value is understood as the ability of a certain commodity to be exchanged for other goods.
If the goods have an unequal use value, they will be similar in terms of the costs of social labor. Therefore, the composition of the value of any commodity always includes public work.
In other words, the concept of exchange value was originally placed in the basis of the exchange of objects. This is a manifestation of their value.
The concept of value and its features
In practice, the definition of value has a numberfeatures. According to the theory, those things for which the labor of people were not used, do not have a price. But individually, labor costs do not endow things with value. Therefore, if something was produced exclusively for personal consumption, it would have no value.
The cost itself is of high quality, and alsoquantitative expression. If the former is a reflection of production relations for different producers, the latter combines the usefulness of this product for society, along with the need for labor investment in the course of its production.
If we consider the concept of value asrelations between producers, it will be one of the categories of production. In addition, the cost is a category of exchange, since in the course of establishing the value of a certain product, one of the weighty moments is exchange.
Economists pay attention to the contradictorynature of goods. It is expressed in the fact that absolutely all products are commensurate with each other. At the same time they are heterogeneous in terms of their quality and are disjointed in their belonging.
Marginal utility of goods
Economists who promote the theory of marginalusefulness, offer another option for determining the value. In accordance with theory, the price of a commodity in itself does not reflect its subjective side. It is expressed only in the subjective evaluation of the buyers. And the general characteristic of all products, their degree of utility are the basic basis for the process of their exchange. In this case, in the evaluation of the utility of certain material goods, the laws of Gossen are applied. They say that during satisfaction of certain needs of people, saturation with them is observed. At the same time, there is a reduction in utility - the benefit from each next product will be less than the previous one.
But in the course of long research among devoteesThis theory did not succeed in identifying a certain indicator that would be able to act in practice as a reflection of utility for all goods in society without exception.
To calculate the cost of the product, Pareto introduced relative indicators, through which it is possible to determine how much one item will be better for end-users than the second.
The dual nature of the concept
Because of the contradictions in the unity of conceptspublic and individual values speak of their dual nature. The main reason for its occurrence lies in the difference between socially necessary and individual labor.
Under socially necessary working timeit is customary to understand the period that the production of a certain use-value of an object occupies. In turn, the individual work time is the period that will be required to make a thing from a certain manufacturer.
In any case, the final cost of the goods is alwaysdepends on the conditions of its reproduction. That is, if a product of similar quality is produced, but at lower costs, then all former products will cost less, commensurate with the value of the last goods.
What affects use value?
The final value of use value in each particular case is influenced by a number of factors. First of all it is:
- labor productivity;
Productivity of labor
Productivity is the fruitfulnessand the effectiveness of certain actions. To measure its value, rely on the number of use values that are created per unit of time. Even in the calculation of productivity, it is possible to estimate the time needed to create one unit of the product.
The higher the productivity, the smallerthere will be temporary costs during the production of a certain number of products. In view of this, the cost of them will also decrease. Calculate the value of the goods is necessary in view of this feature.
Intensity of work
Under the intensity of production, it is customary to understand the labor costs that are incurred for a certain period of time.
The greater the intensity of labor in a particular case, the larger the volume of products created. This will determine the increase in cost per unit of time.
Complexity of work
Labor is classified according to its leveldifficulties. It depends on the manipulations being performed. So, if the employee does not have a specific training, then it is classified as simple. If the execution of a certain manipulation is impossible without prior training, then such work will already be difficult.
Often complex manipulations are presented in the form of simple, but raised to some degree. In the course of reduction, complex procedures are transformed into simple ones.
Therefore, during the calculation of the final cost of goods rely on simple labor and its volumes.
Briefly summarize all of the above:
- The use value of goods and services is understood as their ability to meet certain needs of people.
- Within the framework of subsistence farming, the product is useful only for the manufacturer.
- The use value reflects the exchange value of the product.
- The exchange value of things is understood as their ability to exchange in established proportions and volumes.
- The value of use value for goods and similar products of subsistence farms is not the same.
- Goods are always made for the purpose of exchange, so they have a social use value.
Each thing has several differentvalues. In a word, use-value is a set of useful properties of a commodity. It is associated not only with the quality of products, but also with competitiveness, the importance of which is constantly increasing in modern conditions.