Accounts receivable - accounting, redemption, debiting
Under receivables it is accepted to understandthe amount of debts that an enterprise or individuals must pay to an enterprise as a result of economic relations on a contractual basis. Accounts receivable may appear in the process of concluding transactions that involve installment or sale of goods, provision of services on credit.
Practice repeatedly confirms thatTo date, none of the entities with the formation of a legal entity does not function without receivables, since its occurrence can easily be explained by real reasons:
• if we consider this issue from the sideorganization of the debtor - the existence of receivables contributes to attracting additional capital, while the company's current assets remain intact;
• from the point of view of the creditor enterprise, accounts receivable significantly expands the market of work, the sale of goods and the provision of services.
Funds that include a receivableindebtedness of the enterprise, are withdrawn from the economic turnover of the organization, which, of course, can not be attributed to the advantages of its financial activity. During the period of economic activity, a sharp increase in debt should not be allowed, since in practice the cases of the collapse of economic entities have been repeatedly revealed, therefore, the accounting department of the enterprise has a great responsibility for controlling the receivables. To ensure the sustainable state of the enterprise, one important point must be taken into consideration: accounts receivable must exceed the amount of accounts payable by the amount.
Regardless of whether the short-term orlong-term accounts receivable, whether it is overdue or real, is possible for collection or is hopeless, the most important thing is that it must be properly accounted for and written off so that there will be no questions from the tax inspectorate.
The receivable appears afterconclusion of a loan agreement for the provision of services, works, sales of products, goods in the accounting of the supplier. But it does not exclude the moment when the receivables are transferred to the overdue one, as well as the situation when the buyer can not settle his obligations in full.
In the enterprise account the amount of debtis reflected in the asset balance on a certain date until the moment when the buyer does not fully pay for it. In the event that payment is not received on the account of the enterprise, for example, because of liquidation of the enterprise-buyer, the debt can go to the bad, which may lead to the need for its write-off. In addition, it must be done no later than a certain date and with documentary evidence.
In order to attribute a doubtful debt to a bad debt and later write it off to non-operating expenses, it is necessary to take into account one point:
• the statute of limitations - on the basis ofcivil legislation is three years. In the event that the period in the contract is not registered, the countdown is from the time the borrower is presented with a demand for performance and is seven days: Article 314 of the Civil Code of the Russian Federation.
Accounts receivable, under which the limitation period has already passed, is written off on the basis of the data obtained as a result of the inventory, order and written justification of the head of the enterprise.
In the event that the retention period of documents is alreadyhas expired, it is not recommended to destroy them, since in the absence of documentary evidence during the tax audit, the written-off bad debts will be excluded from the expenses and additional charges and taxes will be charged.