Home horses: care and maintenance
For many centuries man has been walking along side by side withhorse. It is not only a reliable assistant in the household, but also an incredibly loyal friend and companion. Few people do not like horses. It is difficult to remain indifferent to their deep and expressive, almost human eyes.
The evolution of a horse
Home horses and their wild cousins have a commonancestor. They are considered an animal eogippus, extinct many millions of years ago. He was growing up with a small dog, had a long tail. The front paws had four fingers, the rear paws had three fingers. Scientists call the prehistoric areal of eogippus the American continent.
In the Oligocene, the descendants of the eogippus appeared -an anthers. According to the external appearance of these creatures, it was possible to judge the beginning of physiological changes in the structure. Lengthened paws, straightened his back, his body increased in size. Three-fingeredness was designated, as the fourth finger on the front legs disappeared. The leg becomes adapted to fast running and strong jumps.
The next stage in the evolution is hipparion,whose area has significantly expanded due to the migration of animals to Europe and Asia. Outwardly, the Hipparion was like a modern gazelle. He was replaced by about 4.8-5 million years ago, pliogippuses (single-fingered horses). Hypparyons in this period still not completely extinct, and for a while these two species lived in the neighborhood with each other.
Climate change has caused a change in savannahs coveredsucculent herbs, on stony steppes. Pliogippus was more adapted to life in the updated conditions. These animals spread to the western and eastern hemispheres. Many new species originated from the ancestor of the Pliogippus: zebras, tarpans, kulans, donkeys and modern domestic horses.
Breeds of modern horses
Since the man domesticated the horse, he had to work for more than one century to combine her external and physiological qualities into separate breeds.
Today, domestic horses are divided into three main groups: horse, heavy and ponies.
The top breeds include the following: Russian horse, Holstein, thoroughbred horse, Hessian, Bavarian warm-blooded, Hanoverian, Akhal-Teke, Arab and American horse.
The most famous breeds of heavyweights:
- South German heavy-duty;
- the Dutch;
- shayr (the largest heavyweights in the world).
Pony - also horses!
Ponies are undersized horses for riding,their growth does not exceed 150 cm, but despite the small growth, these animals are very strong and enduring. In fact, it is the same domestic horse, the description of its external appearance completely coincides with the description of a large fellow. There are as many pony breeds as riding and heavy-horse horses. Known are such breeds as the American riding pony, Australian pony, American miniature horse, Barman pony, Bosnian mountain pony and many others.
Maintenance of a domestic horse
The maintenance of horses at home is not an easy task. This animal requires not only great attention and care, but also special conditions, in order to maintain health and efficiency.
The breeder of a domestic horse should know thatAn animal must have its own "home" - a stable executed according to special rules. First and foremost, a high ceiling is required - not less than 3 meters. The walls can be wooden or brick. The main thing is to avoid dampness and drafts. From excessive moisture, horses start to rot hooves. The stables must be cleaned daily, the feeders and containers for drinking must also be kept clean.
Horses in the household are used, includingnumber, as labor. In addition, they are excellent friends and helpers in the fight against depression. You can ride a horse as long as you like. Easy physical exercise is only good for her.
In order for the horse to feel good, herit is not necessary to live in a stall. These animals are by nature - wild nomads, their elements - fields, steppes, open spaces. A house horse can live well and on a pasture.
In quality nutrition need any homeanimals. A horse is no exception. The volume and nature of the feed depends on the age, breed, weight and physical activity of the horse. Ideally, for each horse, the diet is developed individually.
Feeding should be regular and provide the animal's body with all the substances necessary for normal activity and vital activity.
Before feeding and after the house horses mustrest an hour or a half, like many other pets. The horse should also drink at least three times a day, her daily need for water is about 46 liters. On hot summer days, water should be given more - up to 70 liters, as the horse sweats heavily and loses a lot of liquid.
When choosing a feed, the owner needs to know that his pet is very selective in food. The horse is demanding about the quality and cleanliness of the feed. In other words, there is something horrible it will not.
Traditional horse food is straw, hay, oats. To it you can add silage, root crops, herbal briquettes, wheat, rye, oil cakes and meals, feed molasses, combined feeds, various vitamin supplements.
Salt and chalk - an integral part of the horse menu
In the diet of any horse must be present salt. The need of an adult in this product is 30-60 g per day, the young need less salt - up to 30 g.
Chalk serves as a source of calcium. It is ground and washed with contaminants. To give chalk mixed with any concentrated food. Daily horses need to eat 50-70 grams of chalk to maintain a normal level of calcium.