Diesel fuel: GOST 305-82. Characteristics of diesel fuel in accordance with GOST
On the quality of the engine and all fuelsystems are not least affected by the properties of the fuel. Today, manufacturers in Russia offer diesel fuel GOST 305-82. The state standard, developed back in 1982, is already outdated, as, indeed, the fuel itself, which until recently was manufactured.
Created in the Soviet Union, this standard,which regulates the manufacture of DT, is interstate. It defines both the technical conditions of production and the characteristics of the fuel, which was intended for cars, industrial units and ships with high-speed diesel engines.
Modern fuel produced byinternational European standards, practically displaced diesel from the market, for the production of which the old GOST was used. Diesel fuel EURO, in addition to having much higher performance characteristics, is also much more environmentally friendly.
However, even today it is considered (at least onpost-Soviet space) that fuel, in which various approved additives can be used, has some advantages due to its versatility and a wide range of operating temperatures.
Diesel fuel (GOST 305-82) was used until recently for military, agricultural machinery, diesel ships and trucks of the old model.
This fuel was used for heatingLow-rise buildings located far from the central heat supply. The combination of low prices and high enough energy efficiency made it possible to save the cost of maintaining houses.
Why in the past? The state standard of 1982 was replaced by GOST 305-2013, which came into effect from January 2015. And it clearly states that diesel GOST 305-2013 is not sold through public gas stations and is intended for high-speed and gas turbine engines both inside the country and in the countries of the Customs Union (Kazakhstan and Belarus).
So, the main advantages are the universality andoperating temperatures. In addition, the benefits of good old diesel fuel is its operational reliability, tested for decades; the possibility of long-term storage without degradation of technical characteristics; increase of engine power.
Diesel fuel GOST 305-82 is easily filtered, contains a small amount of sulfur compounds and does not destroy engine parts.
The undisputed advantage of diesel fuel is its low price compared to other types of liquid fuel.
The main drawback
The main drawback of fuel, because of which,actually, and its use is limited, is a low class of environmental friendliness. Diesel fuel GOST 305-82 (2013) belongs to the class K2. And for today on the territory of the Russian Federation even types of fuel with the class of ecological compatibility K3 and K4 are prohibited for circulation.
Stamps of diesel fuel
The old GOST set three marks of fuel, the new one - four. Also, the temperature ranges for their use and characteristics differ somewhat.
Parameters (GOST) of summer diesel fuel (L): operating temperature - from minus 5 ° С, flash point for diesel engines of general purpose - 40 ° С, for gas turbine, ship and diesel - 62 ° С.
The same flash point for off-season fuel (E), whose operating temperatures start from minus 15 ° C.
Winter fuel (W) is used at temperaturesup to minus 35 ° С and up to -25 ° С. And if in the technical conditions of 1982 the operating temperature range was determined by the pour point of the fuel, the new document deals with the filtration temperature-minus 35 ° C and minus 25 ° C, respectively.
Arctic (A) diesel GOST 305-82 could beuse, starting at a temperature of minus 50 ° C. In the new document, this limit was raised by five degrees, called the recommended temperature from 45 ° C and above.
Types of diesel fuel
Diesel fuel GOST 52368-2005 (EURO) is divided into three types of sulfur by mass content of sulfur:
- I - 350 mg;
- II - 50 mg;
- III - 10 mg per 1 kg of fuel.
In GOST 305-82 diesel fuel, depending on the percentage of sulfur is divided into the types:
- I - fuel of all brands, in which the sulfur content is not more than 0.2%;
- II - diesel fuel with sulfur content for grades L and Z - 0.5%, and for grade A - 0.4%.
New GOST 305-2013, approaching the internationalstandards, divides fuel into two types according to the mass content of sulfur, regardless of the brand. Type I refers to fuel with a sulfur content of 2.0 g, and to type II - 500 mg per kilogram of fuel.
Even species II contains sulfur one and a half times more than fuel of type I, corresponding to international standards.
A large amount of sulfur is harmful emissions into the atmosphere, but also good lubricating properties of the fuel in this case.
In GOST 305-82, the fuel was marked with a capitalthe letter L, Z or A (summer, winter or Arctic, respectively), the mass fraction of sulfur, the summer flash point and the winter pour point. For example, З-0,5 minus 45. Grades of the highest, first or without it, characterizing the quality of fuel, are indicated in the passport for the lot.
Diesel fuel (GOST R 52368-2005) is marked with DT letters, the grade or class is indicated depending on the filtering and cloudiness temperature, as well as the type of fuel I, II or III.
For the Customs Union there is a document,regulating the requirements for fuel, including its symbolic designation. It includes the letter designation DT, the mark (L, 3, E or A) and an environmental factor from K2 to K5, showing the sulfur content.
Since there are many documents, the concept of grade inthey are different, and the characteristics are specified in the quality certificate in more detail, today it is not uncommon for the announcement of the type "Sale of diesel fuel pipe grade 1 GOST 30582005". That is, all the parameters and the quality of the fuel correspond to the specified standard, in addition to the sulfur content.
Main characteristics of diesel fuel
The most important performance indicators,The characteristics of diesel fuel GOST 305-82 (2013) are: cetane number, fractional composition, density and viscosity, temperature characteristics, mass fractions of various impurities.
The cetane number characterizes the flammabilityfuel. The higher this index, the shorter the time from fuel injection to the working cylinder before the start of its combustion, and consequently, the shorter the warm-up time of the engine.
From the fractional composition depends the completeness of combustionfuel, as well as toxicity of exhaust gases. At distillation of diesel fuel the moment of full boiling of a certain amount of fuel (50% or 95%) is fixed. The heavier the friction composition, the narrower the temperature range and the lower boiling point, which means that the fuel in the combustion chamber is subsequently self-ignited.
Density and viscosity affect the processes of fuel supply and injection, its filtration and efficiency.
Impurities affect the wear of the engine, the corrosion resistance of the fuel system, the appearance of a touch of burning in it.
The limiting filterability temperature isLow temperature at which the thickened fuel ceases to pass through the filter with cells of a certain size. Another temperature indicator is the cloud point at which paraffin begins to crystallize, that is, the diesel fuel becomes turbid.
Characteristics of GOST 305-2013 sets forall grades are the same: cetane number, mass fraction of sulfur, acidity, iodine number, ash content, coking ability, pollution, water content. The differences relate to temperature, viscosity and fuel density. In GOST 305-82 there were also differences in coking ability.
Technical requirements for diesel fuel
So, the cetane number for all fuel brands is 45, the sulfur content is either 2.0 g or 500 mg per kg. These are the most important indicators that characterize fuel.
Density of diesel fuel according to GOST varies from 863.4 kg / cu. m for fuel grades L and E up to 833.5 kg / cu. m for grade A, the kinematic viscosity is from 3.0 to 6.0 kv. mm / s to 1.5-4.0 square meters. mm / s, respectively.
The fractional composition is characterized by a rangetemperatures from 280 ° C to 360 ° C for all types of fuel, with the exception of the Arctic, for which the boiling points range from 255 ° C to 360 ° C.
The characteristics (new GOST) of summer diesel fuel do not differ from the characteristics of off-season fuel, with the exception of the maximum filterability temperature.
The temperature of the winter fuel flash for general purpose diesel engines is 30 ° C, for gas turbine, ship and diesel engines - 40 ° C, for the Arctic - 30 ° C and 35 ° C, respectively.
Differences in diesel fuel GOST 305-82 (2013) and EURO
Back in 1993, European quality standardsset a cetane number of not less than 49. Seven years later, the standard that determined the technical characteristics of fuel EURO 3, set more stringent indicators. The cetane number should be more than 51, the mass fraction of sulfur - less than 0.035%, and density - less than 845 kg / cu. The standards were toughened in 2005, and today international standards are in place in 2009.
Today, the Russian Federation produces diesel fuel GOST R52368-2005 with cetane number above 51, sulfur content less than 10 mg / kg, flash point from 55 ° C, density in the range from 820 to 845 kg / cc. m and a filterability temperature of plus 5 to minus 20 ° C.
Even comparing the first two indicators, we can conclude that the diesel fuel GOST 305-2013 does not meet modern environmental requirements.
Since diesel fuel is a flammable liquid,then the safety measures relate, first of all, to protection from the occurrence of a fire. Only 3% of its vapor in the total volume of air in the room is enough to provoke an explosion. Therefore, high requirements are imposed on the sealing of equipment and equipment. Protected wiring and lighting devices are performed, tools are used only those that do not even accidentally spark.
Important for compliance with safety regulations and storage conditions for diesel fuel GOST 305-82 (2013) are temperature indicators relating to the ability to burn.
Autoignition temperature, ° С
Temperature limit of ignition, ° С
It is especially important to observe safety measures and temperature regimes in places of long-term storage of many thousands of tons of diesel fuel, for example, in power plants.
Diesel fuel for power plants
Diesel power plants still use fuel in accordance with GOST 305-82. The equipment on them is installed both domestic production, and foreign.
Foreign manufacturers do not recommend, but do not prohibit the use of diesel fuel GOST 305-82 (2013) with a high sulfur content of 0.5% and 0.4%.
For example, F.G.Wilson recommends to use the highest and first grades of all fuel brands with cetane number from 45, sulfur content not more than 0.2%, water and additives - 0.05%, density 0.835 - 0.855 kg / cu. dm. These characteristics correspond to the fuel type I GOST 305-82 (2013).
In the contract for the supply of diesel fuel forthe power plant must indicate its physico-chemical properties: cetane number, density, viscosity, flash point, sulfur content, ash content. Mechanical impurities and water are not allowed at all.
To check the quality of the fuel supplied andcompliance of its characteristics with the limits set by the state standard determine the content of undesirable impurities and the flash point. If the equipment is experiencing malfunctions and its parts wear out, other indicators are also determined.
GOST 305-82 is out of date and replaced, but also newthe document, put into effect from the beginning of 2015, has not so markedly changed the requirements for diesel fuel for high-speed engines. Maybe someday such fuel will be banned for use at all, but today it is still used both at power stations, and on diesel locomotives, heavy military equipment and trucks, whose fleet has been preserved since the times of the Soviet Union.