The rate of antibodies to TPO in women: the causes and treatment
The thyroid gland produces hormones,providing mental and physical development of a person, body growth, regulates the rate of metabolic processes in the body. In the body, several hormones are synthesized, which have a common name - thyroid. Thyroid dysfunction triggers serious complications in the body. For timely detection of pathology, an analysis is performed that determines whether the antibodies to TPO are exceeded or normal in women and men in the body.
What does the term "antibodies to TPO" mean?
TPO is an enzyme synthesized by the thyroidcalled a thyroid peroxidase or microsomal peroxidase. TPO is involved in the reactions of the formation of thyroid hormones and is an important antigen in the body. With pathologies of the immune and endocrine systems, the content of thyroperoxidase is a diagnostic factor. Thus, in the study, the term "antibodies to TPO in women in men" is used most often, and a medical test is performed to identify the disease.
Antibodies to TPO are protein complexes(immunoglobulins), synthesized in the human body in violation of the immune system. As a result, they begin to perceive the enzyme thyreperoxidase as a foreign body. Under the action of antibodies on the enzyme, its activity is sharply reduced, hence the formation of thyroid hormones, in which it participates, ceases. As a result, the more TPO is destroyed, the less thyroid hormones are formed. The growth of antibodies to TPO leads to dysfunction of the gland. Therefore, patients with hypofunction are assigned a blood test to determine if the antibodies to TPO are exceeded. Women and children are more likely to have elevated values, although in men the indicator may also be higher than natural.
The rate of antibodies to TPO
The natural indicator of antibodies tothyroid peroxidase has the same value in all study groups. Thus, in the analysis for antibodies to TPO, the norm in women and men of different ages is 35 IU / ml. In the case where the indicator is above 35 units, it can be argued that the thyroid gland immunoglobulins have a negative impact. It is necessary to say that 10% of the women surveyed have an upper threshold of the norm or a slight excess of antibodies, with no thyroid gland diseases noted. Therefore, it is necessary to evaluate this feature together with additional tests and studies of the body.
Preconditions and consequences of increasing antibodies to TPO
The intensive development of antibodies to thyroid peroxidase occurs when the immune system begins to destroy its own components of the thyroid gland. In this case, various pathologies develop:
- inflammation of the gland - subacute and chronic (latent) thyroiditis;
- gipoterioz - pathological process,developing with a deficiency of thyroid hormones, leading to diseases of other endocrine organs. In women, it often leads to dysfunction of the sex glands and obesity;
- proliferation of the organ - diffuse goiter. It is a consequence of the lack of thyroid hormones and iodine deficiency.
There are cases when the norm of antibodies is exceededto TPO in women after childbirth. Disturbances are caused by the restructuring of the immune system and the work of the endocrine gland during pregnancy. This phenomenon can go on independently after a few months, but often the endocrinologist needs to be given serious treatment so that the dysfunction does not go into permanent form.
The index of immunoglobulins to TPO may exceed the norm and with other autoimmune disorders not associated with thyroid activity, for example, in case of lupus erythematosus, scleroderma.
Subacute and latent thyroiditis
The causative agent of subacute thyroiditis is considered to bevirus. After the transmitted infection of the upper respiratory tract, the person retains weakness, malaise, there are moderate pain in the neck, giving back to the neck and jaw and intensifying when turning the head. In general, the picture is not very pronounced, so it may take weeks before the true cause of the patient's poor state of health is suspected and revealed.
In mild cases, the symptoms of the disease are eliminatedon the background of taking aspirin. In more severe cases, the use of glucocorticoids is required. The inflammatory process with subacute thyroiditis can last several months, but in general it is benign, and after it is completed, the gland functions are completely restored.
With latent thyroiditis is more commonan increased rate of antibodies to TPO in women. The causes of the disease have not yet been identified. The symptomatology is not pronounced: a slight manifestation of thyrotoxicosis and a slight enlargement of the gland. Against the background of ongoing treatment of thyrotoxicosis, these symptoms disappear within 2-5 months. However, in many patients frequent relapses of the disease are noted, and mild to severe and completely curable hypothyroidism may begin.
Autoimmune chronic thyroiditis (Hashimoto's thyroiditis)
In most cases, the cause of the violationactivity of the thyroid gland is associated with a disease such as autoimmune thyroiditis. With this disease, the excess of antibodies to TPO in women after 50 years is more often noted. The most striking manifestation of the disease is goiter. Moreover, the general contours of the gland persist, but in some cases there may be some asymmetry. Gradually, as the development of pathological changes in the gland tissue develops the phenomenon of hypothyroidism. Sometimes, along with signs of thyroiditis, Hashimoto is symptomatic of Graves' disease. This is the most complex case of thyroiditis.
The disease is amenable to therapy, if at an earlystage there was an increased rate of antibodies to TPO in women. Treatment of pathology is carried out using surgical methods, hormone replacement therapy, and also prescribe anti-inflammatory drugs.
A variant of hypothyroidism - myxedema
Insufficiency of the thyroid gland, in whichthere is a delay in metabolic processes in the body, called myxedema. Women often suffer from this disease. Pathology is characterized by a low body temperature, a slow response to external stimuli, slow speech, constant lethargy, pallor of the skin. Nails and skin become thickened. There is an active loss of hair and eyelashes. In women, myxedema is observed together with ovarian hypofunction, diabetes and obesity.
Can accompany hypothyroidism and impairment incirculatory system: dyspnea, a decrease in the rhythm of the heart, a decrease in blood pressure, the rapid development of atherosclerotic changes in blood vessels, including the vessels of the heart and brain. With such symptoms, if the timely treatment is not properly conducted, the likelihood of developing heart failure is high.
Diagnosis and treatment of myxedema
Myxedema does not have a vivid symptomatology and proceeds in a latent form, so it is difficult to diagnose. If you suspect a disease, you need to contact a competent endocrinologist.
The next stage will be the quantitativea study of the level of hormone secretion. In addition, additional diagnostic measures can be prescribed: the study of the size and structure of the thyroid gland; the study of its functional ability, in this case, radioactive (labeled) iodine is introduced into the body and observed with what intensity it is absorbed by different parts of the gland. In some cases, a biopsy is carried out - taking a microscopic piece of gland tissue for laboratory studies.
After the diagnosis is made hormone therapy. Often the symptoms of the disease completely removed when taking thyroid hormones in the form of tablets.
High level of antibodies to TPO in pregnant women
During pregnancy can be observedexceeded the rate of antibodies to TPO in women. The description of the indicator is necessary if the growth of the thyroid gland is noted and, as a consequence, the level of the pituitary hormone - TSH, which controls the synthesis of thyroid hormones - can increase. The content of the latter remains normal.
Antibody test helps to identify a womanlatent hypothyroidism, which can manifest itself during pregnancy, since at this time the thyroid gland experiences serious stresses. The increased immunoglobulin count, together with the growth of TSH, indicates the development of dysfunction of the gland in a woman and the existing risk for the child, as the lack of hormones affects its development. In this situation, to prevent fetal death, the birth of a baby with pathologies of a pregnant woman is prescribed hormonal treatment.