Big head in a child: a disease or a norm?
The big head with which the child is born,striking in its size. A full-term baby has one-fourth of the total body weight, the premature baby has about the third part, and the adult has only the eighth part. Such a large head in a child is due to the predominant development of his brain.
Children can be born with different head shapes,whereas its size is generally accepted: in full-grown girls, the head circumference is on the average 34 cm, and in boys - almost 35. In healthy newborns, the cerebral skull is larger than the facial skull, since the bones are still uncombed. Gradually, they grow together and form seams, and uncompleted soft areas are called fontanelles.
But sometimes it happens that children are born withabnormally enlarged head, which is often asymmetrical. At the same time, the frontal hillocks protrude considerably, and the eyeballs are enlarged and protruded. Such symptoms speak of a dangerous disease - hydrocephalus.
What is hydrocephalus?
This disease, caused by the accumulation of fluid in thethe child's brain. This disease in people is called a dropsy of the brain. As a rule, this disease is caused by the infectious disease that the mother suffered during pregnancy. Also, the disease can occur as a result of meningitis, intoxication or head trauma. The consequence of these troubles in a child due to illness can be a large head. The disease also leads to increased pressure inside the skull, to neurological disorders, the occurrence of seizures and reduced vision and intellectual abilities.
A big head, of course, is nota hundred percent indicator of hydrocephalus. For example, if one of the child's parents has a large head too, this indicates normal heredity. The main symptom of hydrocephalus in a baby is a large head, that is, its accelerated growth. Therefore, if such changes are observed, it is necessary to conduct an urgent examination, according to which the diagnosis is confirmed or refuted.
Signs of hydrocephalus
The first signs of the disease - increaseda fontanel that does not close to three years of a child's life. Norm - to the year. The bones become thinner, the forehead becomes disproportionate, huge, with a well-visible venous network. There is a symptom of Gref (the upper eyelid lags behind when the eyeball moves down). As a result of the disease, the baby lags behind in psychomotor development, can not hold his head, does not get up and does not play. If, nevertheless, the diagnosis is confirmed, then the earlier the qualified treatment starts, the fewer consequences will be in the future. Usually, hydrocephalus is treated surgically, during which surgeons divert the cerebrospinal fluid from the ventricles of the brain to other body cavities.
Another serious deviation in the development of the child -this is microcephaly. With this disease, the baby also has a big head. But its circumference is only 25 cm, without ferns. The face of the skull is much more cerebral, since the anomaly lies in the reduction in the size of the brain. Like hydrocephalus, this disease can develop before the birth of a child, as a consequence of malnutrition in the womb.