Australian antigen and Hepatitis B
People who are interested for various reasonsmedicine, the question often arises: the Australian antigen - what is it? To date, the so-called surface antigen, of which the envelope of the hepatitis B virus is composed, was first described. The antigen was first described in 1963, but then the name did not refer to the envelope, but to the virus as a whole.
The Australian antigen consists of manyantigenic particles, which are divided into a large number of groups, named in the scientific circles in Latin letters from a to q. It is the presence of these particles and their interaction among themselves that form the type of hepatitis.
Today, there are eight types of hepatitis, the causative agent of which is the Australian antigen. These 8 of its varieties are found constantly. But there are five more, the initiation of which occurs rarely.
A characteristic feature of the Australian antigen is the territorial distribution of its species.
So, in Africa, Southern Europe, the Middle East,in Ukraine, Kazakhstan, the Baltics, Moldova, HBsAg / ay is more common. This is the so-called territory of U, where the causative agent of hepatitis is the y-type antigen.
The north of Europe and Africa, New Guinea, America are considered territory D, because the Australian antigen HBsAg / adw is distributed there.
On site R, in South-West Asia and in the Far East, a species of HBsAg / adr is recorded, and in Oceania all types of antigen are found.
It is curious that the antigen variety does not affect the symptoms inherent in hepatitis B.
Australian antigen is very dangerouseducation, because it freely tolerates repeated freezing, heating to a temperature of 70 ° C. In addition, it is not destroyed by modern disinfectants.
Australian antigen can not be transmittedhousehold way. It is transferred by transfusion of blood products from a sick person to a healthy person or through intravenous injections carried out by infected needles. Dental patients are at risk.
In addition, since hepatitis B concentrationthe virus in the blood is very high, it can get on some hygiene items, even from a tiny wound. Therefore, using other people's toothbrushes, manicure scissors, razors, etc. can lead to infection.
In a third of all infections, the Australian antigenyou can buy with promiscuous unprotected sex. Therefore, the risk of getting infected with hepatitis B is, first of all, exposed to individuals leading a dissolute life, drug addicts, prostitutes, etc.
A mother who is infected with the hepatitis B virus or who is his carrier can in utero transmit it to the child.
There is another no less terrible antigen,which is called prostate specific antigen free or PSA. It is a protein that is localized in the tissue of the prostate gland. Its excessive concentration can lead to very serious consequences, therefore it is recommended that men, especially after 50 years of age, take tests for the presence of prostate-specific free antigen.
If its concentration exceeds 20%, it canbe a sign of a benign neoplasm: prostatitis, a prostate infarction, benign hyperplasia, etc. Less than 15% indicates the presence of malignant formation. These include prostate cancer, breast cancer, intestinal cancer, carcinoma. The remaining indicators are borderline, and the patient requires special supervision of specialists.
Since the protein is directly associated with prostate tissue, in women it is extremely rare.
For the diagnosis of PSA blood tests, digital rectal examinations, colonoscopy, etc. are prescribed.
If there is a suspicion of a disease,recommended prostate biopsy or multiple studies on tumor markers. It is very important, first, to conduct multiple definitions of oncomarkers, because in a single analysis, they may not be determined. Secondly, a week before such studies, completely eliminate any irritation, including biopsies, rectal examinations and the like.