Sepsis - symptoms and pathogens of the disease
Sepsis is a common infectious disease,This is due to the existence of an infected hearth in the body tissues. Moreover, it has a number of differences in comparison with other diseases that have a similar etiology, that is, in the disease of sepsis the symptoms have a different picture of further development. If we consider sepsis from the point of view of its diagnosis and subsequent treatment, it is explained as a perverse or insufficient general biological response of the organism in the form of a response to the introduction into it of nonspecific microbial pathogens. Moreover, it is accompanied by its generalization, proceeds in the form of a process divided into several stages having different lengths.
Sepsis - classification
There are four forms of sepsis, while they havedifferent names and classification of surgeons (purulent-resorptive fever, chroniospsis, septicopyemia, septicemia) and pathologists (chroniospsis, septicopyemia, septicemia and bacterendocarditis). Also, depending on the entrance gate, the appearance of sepsis is divided into:
• therapeutic (parainfect);
• oto-and odontogenic;
The following are distinguished from the flow velocity:
• chronic sepsis;
• subacute (from 7 to 14 days);
• acute (approximately 5-7 days);
• lightning (from 24 to 48 hours) sepsis.
There is also a division depending on the observed development of the clinical picture:
• Early - occurs within a period of not more than 3 weeks (before direct tissue breakthrough);
• Late (more than 3 weeks).
In the latter case, the location of the primary focus of infection loses its significance for the further treatment of the disease. No matter what the symptoms of sepsis are with this.
Pathogens of sepsis
Etiology is diverse, since sepsisis polyethiocene. In the first place among the microbes that cause sepsis, there are still staphylococci. Because of them, about 50% of cases occur. After them, there are streptococci, Proteus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
Despite the fact that manifestations of sepsis are non-specific, the etiology of the pathogen has a great influence on the characteristics of its course, that is, the disease of sepsis symptoms and development has the following:
• Staphylococci - distant metastases, septic pneumonia;
• Streptococcus - spreads through the lymphatic pathways (lymphadenitis, lymphangitis), also in combination with other pathogens;
• Pseudomonas aeruginosa - lightning spread, shock reaction;
• E. coli - peritonitis, peritoneal sepsis;
• clostridia - necrosis, gas formation, edema;
• Bacteroides - DIC-Syndrome.
All the features are determined by toxins and enzymes produced by bacteria.
Phases of the disease
Immunity in humans in the occurrence of sepsis is notis developed. The diagnosis of sepsis and its treatment is hampered by the fact that it lacks the cyclicity that is characteristic of most infectious diseases. There is the occurrence of an inadequate hyperergic reaction of the body to a generalized infection, in the event of its inability to localize.
Currently, the following phases of the course of the disease are distinguished, with sepsis symptoms being different:
• Stress - it reflects the reactionmacroorganism on the pathogen. In the event that the local inflammatory reaction is insufficient, it is possible to include a functional protective system with the participation of sympathoadrenal and hypothalano-pituitary.
• Catabolic disorder - there is a progressive consumption of enzymatic and structural reserves of the body. As a result, decompensation of functional systems occurs.
• Anabolic, - with its onset, the lost reserves begin to recover.