ALT is upgraded. What to do?
The enzyme alanine aminotransferase (ALAT), contained in the liver, is used as an indicator to detect violations of its functions. What does the fact indicate if ALT is upgraded?
Among the many enzymes that areindicators of hepatocellular disorders, the most useful and necessary are alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (ACAT). Due to them, the transfer reactions to gamma-group of ketoglutarate of gamma-groups of alanine and aspartate are accelerated. As a result of this process, pyruvic and oxalic-acetic acids are formed.
Both ALT and AsAT are cellular enzymes of the kidneys,liver, heart. But alanine aminotransferase is primarily in the liver and is considered to be its most important indicator, and aspartate aminotransferase is made up of many (besides the listed above) organs and tissues, including skeletal muscles, brain, etc. That is why the key enzyme of AsAT is less characteristic as an indicator of liver function, and it takes part in the exchange of amino acids.
If there is destruction of cells of the liver, heart,kidneys, alanine aminotransferase (ALAT) enters the blood. The increase of this cellular enzyme in the blood structure speaks of hidden diseases. When conducted studies show that there is high AlAT content in the blood, it is possible to develop quite serious diseases, such as:
- viral hepatitis,
- liver cancer,
- heart failure,
- a heart attack.
A rise in aspartate aminotransferase in the blood can lead to the onset
- liver cancer,
- Muscular dystrophy,
- paroxysmal myoglobinuria,
- hepatitis A,
- heart failure.
If the total ASAT and ALAT are increased, the following are possible:
- extensive hepatic necrosis,
- Toxinogenic liver damage,
- severe viral hepatitis,
- prolonged vascular collapse.
Practically for all human diseasesblood tests show that the indicator of both ASAT and ALT is increased, that is, the level of the content of both enzymes in these cases is almost the same and indicates the presence of pathology. But there is one difference. If the ALT is elevated to a greater extent than the aspartate aminotransferase, this indicates an incubation period for the development of infectious hepatitis. If the ASA in the blood is more, it is often a heart problem.
In a healthy person, the content of these cellular enzymes should be at the level of:
- for men up to 41 units per liter (U / L);
- for women up to 31 units per liter (U / L).
To reveal the level of these protein enzymesexchange, take a biochemical blood test. The norm for ALAT in it will be 28-190 nmol / (sec) or 0.1-, 68 μmol / (ml h), and for AcAt - 28-25 nmol / (sec) or 0.1-, 45 μmol / (ml h). This norm for both cases is given for the Reitman-Frenkel method (the colorimetric method of investigation).
Usually, blood tests forAlanine aminotransferase is performed to learn about the liver status, and on aspartate aminotransferase - to see the state of the myocardium (cardiac muscle). If the analysis shows their high content in the blood, then in these organs there are processes of destruction and death of cells. So, if ASAT has exceeded its level in the blood 2-20 times, then it is possible to develop a myocardial infarction. If ALT is elevated, there is a pathological process in the liver.
With a lowered blood levelalanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase specialists know that the body lacks pyridoxine (vitamin B6). Usually this happens during pregnancy, with frequent hemodialysis and kidney failure.
Unfortunately, where in the blood serumof a healthy person these enzymes are taken, is still unknown, so the mechanism of their clearance (the rate of clearance of plasma, other biofluids and tissues from any substances due to their redistribution, biotransformation, removal from the body) is also incomprehensible.