Hemoglobin is normal in adults and children
To transfer oxygen from the lungs to the tissues, you needintermediary. This role is performed by hemoglobin, the norm of which is its concentration, which fully provides the function of tissue respiration. It is defined by generalizing laboratory studies and clinical observations of people of different age groups.
Hemoglobin is a chromoprotein, a complex compound of the protein-globin and heme. Hem - a pigment, formed protoporphyrin and iron. Iron plays a major role in the process of oxygen transfer.
The norm of hemoglobin is its optimal concentration, at which iron is sufficient for tissue respiration.
With a lack of iron or a violation of educationprotoporphyrin, the amount of respiratory pigment decreases. If hemoglobin is lower than normal, anemia or iron deficiency anemia develops. There are special laboratory indicators characterizing the saturation of red blood cells with hemoglobin and, hence, iron. This is a color figure, normally equal to 0.86-1.05; SSEG norm is 27-33 pc.
Let's consider what the optimal hemoglobin is equal to. The norm of it in healthy people is different for different authors. So, according to the data of Gribova IA, in men it is 132-164 g / l. In female subjects - 115-145 g / l.
In the "Guide to Clinical Laboratorytests "from 2001, Moscow, as a rule in adolescents male sex figures of 120-160 grams / liter are given. From 18 to 45 years, a higher hemoglobin, the norm in men is 132-173 g / l. Older people have slightly lower figures. After 65 years, the norm range is 126-174 g / l.
For females, in all cases,lower hemoglobin. The norm in women on the above-mentioned directory is 115-150 grams / liter. From 18 to 45 years, the values are 117-155 g / l. After 45 years, the upper figures of the norm are higher by 5 or 6 grams / liter.
With a decrease in hemoglobin below the norm appearsymptoms associated with oxygen starvation of tissues. They consist in pallor of mucous membranes and skin, in brittleness and dryness of nails and hair, weakness. There is shortness of breath, heart rate increases, irritability appears. Against the background of a decrease in appetite, unusual taste preferences sometimes appear.
The norms of hemoglobin in children are even morefluctuations. They are different in different age periods. In newborns, high hemoglobin. Its norm is equal to 152-236 g / l. By the month it decreases and it is equal to 103-176 g / l. From one and a half to 3.5 months, it decreases even more. By the age of 3 months, it is 96-128 g / l. In this period, children are marked by the so-called physiological anemia of newborns, the genesis of which is not completely clear. In the psychomotor and physical state of children, it does not cause abnormalities. From 5-7 months hemoglobin starts to rise. By the year it is 107-131 g / l.
From one and a half to three years, children have approximatelysame hemoglobin. The norm at this age is 108-128 g / l. In subsequent years, its concentration in the blood gradually increases, reaching to 12 years of the range from 120 to 150 grams / liter. With insufficient intake of iron from food in children, iron deficiency anemia may develop. Its main sign is a sharp decrease in hemoglobin. Reduces the hemoglobin content in the erythrocyte and characterizes its color index. A biochemical test reveals a decrease in serum iron.
Hemoglobin is higher than normal with erythremia -blood diseases, and symptomatic erythrocytosis, which develop as a physiological compensation for lack of oxygen (for example, in the highlands, in hard work, in smokers) or in diseases associated with oxygen starvation. With the loss of the liquid part of the blood (dehydration, burn disease), the increase in hemoglobin can be relative.
Deficiency of iron with anemia can not be compensated with food. If signs of anemia appear, do not delay with treatment. Good health and normal hemoglobin!