Heart transplantation in Russia and the world
Among the transplantation of various organs by frequencyperforming heart transplant surgery is second only to kidney transplant. To use such operations more often in practice became possible due to the improvement of methods of organ conservation, the technique of artificial circulation, suppression with the help of modern drugs of rejection reaction. Heart transplantation is carried out at the thermal stage of chronic ischemic heart disease, cardiomyopathy with severe heart failure, severe combined heart defects.
The first heart transplantation on the neck of the dog wasproduced in 1905. At the same time, the heart vessels were connected to the ends of the jugular vein and carotid artery. Later, heart transplant was also applied to the pleural region, to the thigh, and so on. In 1941, N.P. Sinitsyn performed the world's first transplant of an additional heart to a frog. And in 1961 the method of orthotopic transplantation was developed. The heart was removed at the level of the atria, and then the donated heart was sutured to the left atrium walls and the atrial septum, after which the aorta roots of the donor heart and pulmonary artery were anastomosed (connected) to the vascular trunks.
In 1964, a man who died of a heart attackmyocardium, a cardiac surgeon from America named James Hardy transplanted the heart of a monkey. However, the organ stopped working after 90 minutes. And in 1967 another doctor performed the first clinical allotransplantation of the heart (a transplant from a human to a human), but the patient died within 17 days. After that, doctors from foreign clinics began to massively carry out such transplants, but the results were often unsatisfactory. Therefore, heart transplantation soon became less frequent. It was also connected with the moral and ethical aspects. The most successful heart transplant was performed in the clinic at Stanford University (USA). Now in this and other large clinics continue to intensively study various nuances of heart transplantation, including are engaged in the search for methods of maintaining the viability of the organ that has already stopped, and restoring its contractile function. There are also studies in the field of artificial heart.
Because of the frequent rejection in our country up toEighties of the last century heart transplantation was practically not performed. But after the invention of the drug "Ciclosporin" in 1980, warning the rejection of the organ transplant, cardiac transplantation became widely used in domestic medicine. So, the first successful transplantation was performed by surgeon V. Shumakov in 1987. Now science has gone far ahead, and a fantastic operation for that time today has become commonplace. Not so long ago, heart transplantation required him to stop and connect to the artificial circulation, and now the entire process is carried out with a beating heart.