What signs of dehydration in a child need to know
Fluid is needed in the body in order toensure a normal level of blood pressure, and also to ensure that metabolic processes in cells, outside cells and in vessels are performed normally. The degree of delivery of oxygen and the necessary substances to vital organs directly depends on arterial pressure (brain, heart, kidneys, liver). Enzymes and other chemicals do not react if the amount of water in the cell, in the vessel or in the extracellular fluid decreases.
- high body temperature;
- Shortness of breath;
- a large amount of urine.
The baby's body contains a greater percentage of waterkilogram of body weight), while this fluid is lost much faster. First, the body tries to fill the necessary water, taking it from the tissues, shortly afterwards, "water" flows out of the vessels into the outflow. This causes dehydration. As a result, the kidneys suffer, and if the fluid is not restored in time, changes in them can become irreversible, in which the child for survival will have to constantly perform procedures with the aid of the "artificial kidney" apparatus.
Symptoms of dehydration in a child
Below are listed a number of symptoms by which you canto judge how much the child's body is dehydrated. At the same time, they can not be fully relied upon. For example, a symptom such as thirst will not be expressed at all when a child, for example, during vomiting, will lose more salts than liquids. In simple terms, if the loss of sodium exceeds the loss of water, the child will not ask for a drink. The same applies to the situation when the infectious process that caused diarrhea or vomiting provoked the development of an acetone state: in this case, the child also does not want to drink, or he will vomit after taking water. "What should I do?" You ask. To assess the degree of dehydration, one should not only pay attention to signs of dehydration in a child, but also consider the amount of fluid lost (in the case of vomiting and diarrhea).
Degree of dehydration
I degree. The percentage of fluid loss is up to 5% of body weight. That is, if a child weighed 10 kilograms before the disease, now he lost up to 500 grams of weight (not more). If there is nowhere to weigh, an easy degree of dehydration can be considered if the child:
- liquid stool up to 6 times a day;
- vomiting up to two times a day;
- the child wants to drink, he is whimsical, excited;
- Wet skin, normal properties;
- eyes do not fuse;
- The lips are dry or normal;
- the voice is normal, not hoarse;
- The pulse is slightly rapid or normal;
- fontanel (if it has not yet closed) does not sink;
- The child normally urinates.
II degree. Deficiency of body weight - 6-9%, or:
- diarrhea up to 10 times or repeated vomiting;
- the child strongly wants to drink;
- The child can be nervous, but more often he is listless, sleepy;
- the skin is rather dry, if it is taken in a fold (for example, on the forearm or in the region of the right hypochondrium), then this fold is straightened slowly;
- the voice is hoarse;
- eyes and fontanel sunken;
- The lips are dry;
- The pulse is frequent;
- urine less than usual.
The second degree means that you need to urgently go to the hospital, and on the "First Aid", where the child will be put a dropper and begin to return the lost liquid.
- the child becomes unconscious;
- the skin is dry, the fold is almost not straightened;
- lips dry, red, covered with crusts;
- The pulse is frequent and weak, sometimes it is poorly palpable;
- eyes and fontanel sunken;
- Urine is very small.
Dehydration of the body. Treatment
1. The most important thing is to return the liquid to the body. Otherwise, he will die. To do this, only with the first degree can one be limited to one evaporation. When there are signs of dehydration in the child, water is used to replenish the liquid, in which "Regidron", "Oralit", "Human electrolyte" is dissolved according to the instructions. It should be done this way: the liquid is given often, but fractional (to avoid vomiting), the fluid volume is calculated carefully and consists of three components:
- a fluid that the body needs to maintain life, while the rates depend on the weight of the child;
- a liquid that must compensate for the losses that are already present (you must count the amount of stool and vomit, measure the temperature every 2 hours);
- a liquid that will make up for further losses.
For example, for a child weighing 10 kg and a degreedehydration I the calculation is as follows: for 10 kg at normal temperature it is supposed to drink a liter per day, plus he lost 300 ml with diarrhea, so they need to be returned, plus diarrhea lasts 5 times 50 ml each. The temperature is normal, urine acetone is negative. In total, you need to drink at least 1600 ml per day.
Dehydration II and III degree is treated only in the hospital. Here, in addition to drinking, intravenous fluids are necessary.
2. Elimination of the cause of fluid loss. When an infectious disease that is accompanied by vomiting and diarrhea - antibiotics, at elevated body temperature - the identification of the cause (often here too, require antibiotics).