Focal pneumonia is a disease thatcharacterized by a symptomatic complex of inflammation of the lung tissue. Its feature is the diversity of etiological, pathogenetic, clinical signs. A characteristic feature of the disease is the limitation of inflammation within the limits of the lung, acinus or segment.
Focal pneumonia is often a consequencecomplications of other diseases (for example, with blood congestion in a small circle of circulation, hypostatic pneumonia occurs) or independent. The development of the process begins with the bronchi, so it is also called bronchopneumonia.
The disease is classified according tothe magnitude of inflammatory foci. According to this principle, pneumonia is divided into small-focal, large-focal and drainage. Often the process is localized in lobules of the lung within a certain segment. In this case, the areas of normal tissue alternate with pathological inflammatory foci.
Focal pneumonia occurs when anyinfectious agents: staphylococci, streptococci, pneumococci, proteus, legionellae, intestinal rods, anaerobic microbes, protozoa, mycoplasmas, chlamydia, viruses.
Pathogens penetrate into the lung tissuemainly by a bronchogenic pathway. Lymphogenous and hematogenous method is typical for secondary pneumonia, which complicates the course of the main pathological condition. Reproduction of microorganisms is carried out under the influence of unfavorable factors, which reduce the protective functions of the bronchial defense system. These include hypothermia, smoking, stress, inhalation of toxic substances.
The nature of inflammatory processes depends on the properties of the infectious agent, the degree of disturbance of blood circulation in the lesion site, the state of the macroorganism.
Focal pneumonia has a variable clinicalpicture. The disease can develop gradually, acutely. In the latter case, there is a sharp increase in temperature, chills. Frequent complaints of patients are cough, which can be dry, wet with the release of significant quantities of sputum, pain in the chest, increased respiratory depression, general weakness.
For the diagnosis of the disease the followinginstrumental methods: auscultation and percussion. The first way helps to listen to the nature of breathing and changes in it. In the presence of acute pneumonia, sonorous wet rales are determined. Breathing becomes hard. During percussion, areas of blunting are identified, which alternate with areas of healthy tissue. Addition of pleurisy causes the appearance of pathological noise of friction of the pleura.
In laboratory studies, an increase in neutrophilic leukocytes in the blood, an increase in ESR is determined.
Acute pneumonia requires immediate treatment,because in many cases complications are added to it, often leading to a significant deterioration in the functional state. The disease is of a complex nature. It includes the fight against toxemia and infection, the elimination of inadequate breathing, the restoration of the function of organs, the increase of protective forces. The choice of drugs is based not only on the nature of the underlying disease, but also on the presence of concomitant pathological conditions.
Basic principles of therapy with medicamentousdrugs, among which the main role is played by antibiotics, are as follows: when establishing the diagnosis, treatment begins which, before determining the type of pathogen, includes a wide spectrum of action. After clarifying the etiology and identifying a particular infectious agent, the relief of pneumonia acquires a slightly different form. Several antibacterial agents are prescribed, which have the same and narrow mechanisms of action. Treatment of bronchopneumonia with timely and rational selection of drugs ends on average after seven days.