The human dental formula. What does it mean and what kinds of formulas do exist?
Teeth are an important factor in the chewingand speech effectiveness of a person. They take part in chewing, breathing, voice development and speech formation. Teeth can not renew themselves, and their strength is only an appearance. The dental formula and its knowledge contribute to regular dental care and provide an opportunity to orientate in the advice of dentists.
Methods of marking teeth
In dentistry, doctors for diagnosingpatient and convenience of conducting his card use a certain numbering. The order of the condition of all the teeth is usually marked in the form of a special formula, which is called the "human dental formula." In various theories, groups of teeth performing the same functions are indicated by Arabic or Roman letters and numbers. There are some systems for determining teeth. This is the standard method of Zygmondy-Palmer, and the international theory of Viola, and the Haderup system and the multifunctional alphanumeric theory.
The Sigmondi-Palmer system
The dental formula, first of all, is based onThe square-digital theory of Zygmondy-Palmer, which was approved in 1876. Its feature is that all the teeth of adults are marked with Arabic numerals from 1 to 8. In children, they are numbered in Roman numerals from I to V.
Two-digit theory of Viola
It was approved by the International Federationdentists in 1971. According to this method, the lower and upper jaws are divided into 4 quadrants of 8 teeth. The adult person has quadrants - 1, 2, 3, 4, and children - 5, 6, 7, 8. In this case, the number of the quadrant is denoted by the first digit. And the second number is the number of the tooth (from 1 to 8). This is a human dental formula, the scheme of which helps to orient in the structure of the jaw.
Such a system is considered the most convenient inApplication, as there are no letters and lines. And in this regard, in the dentist's office, you can hear the appointment that it will be necessary to treat the 34th or 47th tooth, and the child - 51st or 83rd. But this does not mean that the adult has 47, but the baby 83.
In this theory, to determine the location of the teethapply Arabic numerals. The top line comes with the symbol "+", and the bottom line with the sign "-". Milky teeth are shown in figures from 1 to 5 with the addition of zero, as well as the symbols "+" and "-" in comparison with the molars.
Multifunctional alphanumeric method
This system, recognized by the Americandental organization, has the difference that any tooth in a row has its own number in adults and a letter in children. Countdown should be left, beginning with the upper right tooth, and then left to right along the bottom line.
The human dental formula, the scheme of which wasonce developed to use it in medicine, plays an important role in the detailed study of the sequence of teeth in the upper and lower part of the jaw system. You can get acquainted with the drawing in detail in order to understand how the teeth look in the open position of the jaw.
Unstable teeth in children fall out and are replaced byindigenous, as a rule, in the age category 6-7 years. But there are sometimes some inconsistencies in these years, related to the special characteristics of the organism. The dental formula can become an assistant in the study of these features.
To see how it will be implementedrenewal of teeth, one should understand the specificity of the dentoalveolar structure and its specificity. Despite the fact that usually baby teeth are cut after the child turns half a year, they are formed at the very first stages of pregnancy. This is a rather lengthy and difficult process that ends during the third trimester of pregnancy. And as soon as the baby is born, the beginnings of the permanent teeth begin to appear. And in this regard, it is necessary to take care of the health of temporary teeth, since infection with tooth decay of the milk tooth may well spoil the root of the root.
What are the differences?
The tooth formula of a set of baby teeth has somedifferences with constants. An adult has 32 teeth, and a child has 20 dairy teeth. Often the loss of baby teeth happens when the root ones are already cutting. Often parents are worried that the effect of eruption, as well as loss, can be accompanied by pain for their child. But for the most part, their concerns are in vain, since such an option is virtually eliminated. The situation is such that during the preparation of the dentoalveolar system to replace the teeth, the roots of dairy begin to gradually disappear. And that's why the teeth begin to loosen and fall out, and in their place to grow permanent. As a rule, development occurs with the lower incisors. Teeth drop out gradually, and the whole stage lasts from 6 to 8 years.
Dental formula in children
Clinical or detailed formula of baby teeth in a child is marked with Roman numerals in this form:
V IV III II I II III IV V
V IV III II I II III IV V
It turns out, each half of the jaw of the upper andthe lower lines have 2 incisors (I and II), 2 large permanent teeth (IV and V), as well as 1 canine (III), small molars are missing, the entire jaw has 20 teeth.