Railroad crossing. Rules for the passage of the railway crossing. Arrangement of railway crossing
Railway crossing (photo of different situationson this site is presented in the article) is the place of a one-level crossing of a track with an automobile, bicycle or pedestrian road.
Any railway crossing is subject toincreased danger. For this reason, in order to prevent accidents in these places, there are security elements and warning signals. In particular, they include barriers, sound signals and traffic lights. The facility is also equipped with an automatic type crossing fence. It is a metal tile, rising to block the passage. Exceptions are places located in low-activity areas of traffic. For their designation, only warning elements are used (for example, the sign "Railway crossing"). The objects under consideration are located in those places where good visibility prevails. The intersection of railway tracks and highways should be at least sixty degrees. In a number of countries, the dedicated tram line at the intersection with the highway is equipped in exactly the same way as the railway line.
Classification of objects
In our country railway crossingsare divided into several categories. All such objects are divided into two classes: regulated and unregulated. The task of ensuring safety on the railway transport of federal importance is solved by telemechanics and specialized automation equipment. They ensure the regulation of traffic and the preferential right of trains in those places where on one level of their way there are intersections with highways. These standards must comply with all requirements, which are established by the special Regulation "On the Safety of the Railway Transport Infrastructure". Further in the article it will be referred to as the Technical Regulations. The SDA provides for the definition of safe crossing opportunities for unregulated railroad tracks for all participants in the process.
Classification of operational conditions of the facility
A railway crossing can be in the following states:
- The facility is open for traffic of trains and other vehicles. At the same time, telemechanics and railway automation are in good order.
- The object is open for the movement of trains on it, butclosed to other vehicles. At the same time, the relocation is free from road facilities. Telemechanics and automation are in good order. The railway crossing is ready for safe passage of trains.
- The object is closed for trains andother vehicles. This is due to the presence at the crossing of a motor vehicle that can not leave it on its own. At the same time, telemechanics and railway automation are in good order. Moving is not ready for a vehicle pass.
- The object is closed for trains andother cars. At the same time, telemechanics and railway automation are in a faulty condition. The railway crossing is not ready to carry out a vehicle pass because of the protective failure of security equipment.
- The object is open for the movement of trains on it, butclosed for cars. This is due to the presence at the crossing of the vehicle, which did not have time to leave its zone. At the same time, telemechanics and railway automation are in good order. Moving is ready for the implementation of traffic control of vehicles.
- The object is open for the movement of trains on it, butclosed for cars. At the same time, telemechanics and railway automation are in a faulty condition. Moving is not ready to carry out traffic control of vehicles.
- The facility is open for trains andother cars. At the same time, telemechanics and railway automation are in a faulty condition. The facility is not ready for safe passage of trains and cars.
Instructions for railway crossingsestablishes a certain level of control, which must correspond to telemechanics and railway automation. These funds should provide traffic when exercising the priority right of trains on the regulated object. To do this, you must perform the following functions:
1. Exercising control over trains. In particular, the unloading and employment of the approach or removal sections are regulated.
- This control measure is implemented at thecontrolled crossings, which are located on the tracks of the railway tracks. This exercise is carried out by using several independent sensors. Their task is to record the presence of trains on the site of the move. There should be at least four sensors.
- This control measure is implemented on regulatedcrossings, which are located at railway stations. They should be equipped with a system of centralization of traffic lights and arrows. This event is carried out through technical equipment.
2. To implement the fencing of the objects in question, a traffic light is used. The railway crossing is equipped with specialized warning systems. These elements, functioning on objects, are controlled automatically or from the outside. They are controlled by the operator, who regulates the movement of trains on a certain section of the railway tracks. Also this action can be performed by the duty officer on the object. Traffic signals adjust traffic. They prohibit the use of the facility for vehicles while the train reaches the appropriate section (approaching the line of intersection with the road for a certain distance).
3. The implementation of the barrier of the object by barriers from the side of the road traffic. This exercise is carried out by installing specialized systems. The crossing is equipped with electric barriers. They can be controlled automatically or from the outside. They are controlled by the operator, who regulates the movement of trains on a certain section of the railway tracks. Management can also be performed by the shift attendant. Reflective instruments and signal lights are installed on the bars of barriers on the sides that face the road.
4. Implementation of the crossing barrier by equipping the participants with vehicles from unauthorized entry. This exercise is carried out by installing specialized systems. The device of railway crossing in this case provides for the construction of obstruction elements from the road side. The operation of these structures is controlled by the operator. It regulates the movement of trains on a certain section of the railway tracks. Also, a person on duty can perform the management.
5. The implementation of the fencing of the object by specialized devices from the railways. This activity is carried out by installing barrier traffic lights in the appropriate direction. They are controlled by the operator, who regulates the movement of trains on a certain section of the railway tracks. Also, the duty person on the move can answer for this.
6. Realization of control of free path from vehicles. This measure is carried out by equipping the object with the appropriate sensors. They usually have a control device. They can also be visually monitored by the duty officer.
7. Implementation of the definition of the speed of the train, which is approaching the object. This activity is carried out by equipping the railways with sensors in the moving zones. In addition, devices are placed that process the information received.
8. Realization of telemechanics and railway automation communication with other relevant equipment and operators that regulate the movement of trains on a certain section of the railway tracks. To implement these activities, special automatic lines are used. Operators, in turn, using the received data, regulate the movement of trains on a certain section of the railway tracks.
9. Implementation of a timely report to all road users of information that soon the procedure for closing the move will begin. This measure is carried out by equipping the facility with special devices for sound notification.
10. The implementation of timely reporting of information to pedestrians who follow the pedestrian crossing road, that a train will arrive shortly there. This exercise is carried out by equipping the facility with the voice informant equipment.
11. Realization of control of telemechanics and railway automation. This measure is carried out by installing the appropriate sensors and indicating instruments.
General rules for travel of railway crossing
Never forget that non-complianceestablished norms can cost a person's life. Absolutely all participants of traffic must obey the ban on being in the moving zone, when the barrier starts to close or is already in that position, and the corresponding traffic light comes on. This rule also applies to cyclists and pedestrians. It is allowed to be no closer than five meters from the barrier structure. If the railway crossing without a barrier, then the distance to the nearest rail should be at least 10 meters.
Rules for the passage of the railway crossing operating in the Russian Federation
In our country all road users are prohibited from entering the railway tracks in the following situations:
- The barrier starts to close or is already closed. In this case, the color of the warning light device signal does not play a decisive role.
- The train (or any other railway transport) is within the visibility zone and is approaching the move.
- The prohibiting signal of the light device has lighted up. In this case, the position and presence of the fence structure does not play a decisive role.
- The passage of railroad crossings is prohibited in the event that a traffic congestion forms behind the railway wake zone, which prevents the driver from leaving the rails.
- The attendant gives a prohibiting signal. In this case, it should be facing the driver with his back or chest with a wand raised above his head, a flag, a red lantern or stretched out to the side with his hands.
Practically in all countries where there are railroad tracks, safety at railway crossings is ensured by observing the above norms.
What if the car stopped on rails?
Unfortunately, the occurrence of such situations is notrarity. In the event that the driver can not independently push the car out of this zone, the stipulated norms require the following actions from him:
- In the event of an emergency stop on the railway tracks, all passengers must be immediately landed from the car.
- Try to take action on their own to free some of the railroad tracks.
- To send two people to both sides of the railway, if there is such an opportunity. Beforehand, you need to explain to them the rules for giving a stop signal to the train driver.
- To be near a vehicle. In this case, general alarm signals should be given.
- If the train appeared in the zone of visibility, it is necessary to run towards it. Thus it is necessary to notify the driver of the need for an urgent stop.
How correctly to signal?
For information is a series of one long and three short beeps.
The signal is circular motion by hand. For its implementation at night you need a flashlight or torch, and in the afternoon - some easily visible object or a flap of bright fabric.
Security rules for crossingrailway crossings are not respected by all and not always. This inevitably leads to the death of people. At present, special attention is paid to developments that would prevent such a confluence of circumstances. For example, in Western Europe, a program to reduce the number of relocations has been launched. They are replaced by multilevel intersections. At the same time, the ratio of four to one is observed. That is, several old objects are replaced with a new, more advanced one. In the Netherlands, the construction of crossings was completely abandoned. At the same time, in some cities of the Russian Federation there are trolleybus and tram routes that pass through the railway track zone.
On the operated crossings newdevelopment, construction materials and modern technical solutions. All these activities are aimed at improving the safety of uninterrupted traffic on the intersections of railways and highways. The facilities are equipped with rubber flooring. They significantly increase the speed of overcoming part of the railway wagons by vehicles. To increase the level of security, special alarm systems are used. They allow you to inform the traffic participants about the emergence of emergency situations in the zone of intersection of the road with the railway carpet and other emergency circumstances. Currently, sirens and flashing beacons of red color are widely used.
At a certain distance in front of any sectionCrossing the road with the railroad liner special structures are installed. If the object is not equipped with a blocking element, then this is a railway crossing without a barrier. The sign is a white triangle, edged with a red line along the entire perimeter. In the center there is a steam locomotive. Railway crossing without a barrier, the sign of which is presented above, is usually additionally equipped with signal elements. Directly in front of the rails is a warning structure - a sign in the form of a white Andreev cross with a red edging.