The main types of electoral systems
In the literature, the term "electoral system"is described in two meanings. In a broad sense, this term means public relations, directly related to elections and constituting their order. They are regulated by constitutional law, as well as by the norms established by public associations. An important role in this is played by traditions and customs, norms of political ethics and morality.
Identify the basic principles of the electoral system: universality, free participation in elections and equality of citizens in the process, mandatory vote, competitiveness, equal opportunities for all applicants, "transparency" of conducting and preparatory work.
Accordingly, under the electoral system
In the narrow sense of the word, this system is consideredas the method established in legal acts, allowing to establish the results of elections and to distribute deputy mandates. This process directly depends on the results of voting.
The main types of electoral systems are determined, first of all, by the principles of formation of
The majority system is based on personalrepresentation in power. Therefore, a certain person is always nominated as a candidate for office. However, the mechanism of nomination may be different: some types of electoral systems allow self-nomination of candidates, for example, from public associations, while others require candidates to run exclusively from political parties. However, with any alignment of forces in the majority district, the examination takes place on a personal basis. Therefore, a capable, adult citizen, having come to the polls, will vote for a specific person as an independent unit of the described process.
As a rule, those types of electoral system,the basis of which is majority, conduct elections in single-mandate constituencies. However, the number of such districts directly depends on the number of mandates. The winner is the participant in the campaign who received the largest number of votes of the district's voters.
It is based on the principle of representationparties. Accordingly, in this case they nominate lists of certain candidates for which they are invited to vote. The types of electoral systems, based on proportionality, are proposed to actually vote for a political party that defends the interests of certain strata. Mandates are subject to distribution in proportion to the number of votes cast (in percentages).
The seats in the authority that the party received,occupy people from the list put forward by it and in accordance with the priority set by it. Usually they are received by the first 90 candidates from the corresponding list.
Attempts to make the best use of the typesThe electoral systems described above led to the emergence of mixed systems. Their essence boils down to the fact that some of the deputies are elected by majority system, and some by proportional. Accordingly, the voter has the opportunity to vote both for the candidate and for the political party. This system was used in Russia when choosing deputies of the State Duma of the first four convocations.