Measures for protection against electric shock. Individual means of protection against electric shock. Signs and posters for electrical safety
Electric current is a clearly directed movement of electrically charged particles under the direct action of an electric field. For more information, see below.
The phenomenon of electric current can be observed in the following situations:
- at direct heating of conductors;
- when changing their chemical composition;
- with the formation of a magnetic field (this phenomenon occurs in all conductors without exception).
Electricity is an indispensable element inNowadays. Without it, no enterprise can function. However, it is important to know that along with useful properties, the current can harm human health and even life. Of course, this does not mean that people should refuse electricity altogether. But each of us should be more careful. To protect your life and health, you should observe some measures to protect yourself from electric shock. We will now talk about this.
It is important to note that the protection of the entire work collective depends more on the operating situation, namely on factors such as: temperature, humidity, dust of the building, etc.
Unfortunately, a person very often neglectssimple safety rules. And the sad statistics say that in most cases, death as a result of current shock overtakes workers who are better informed in the handling of electricity.
People do not always follow the rules, even knowing them. What causes workers to expose themselves to such a danger in the enterprise? Perhaps this is due to the fact that people want to save time. Sometimes working conditions force the employee of the enterprise to expose themselves to such a danger. In such situations, it is necessary to immediately contact the relevant organizations, which should be any at the enterprises, in order to avoid a fatal outcome.
What kind of current is the greatest threat to human life?
There are three groups of power of electric voltage. They have different effects on human life. A certain level of stress can cause minor harm to a person and even kill him. The levels of voltage strength are listed below:
- threshold current (perceptible). Under his influence, a person can feel minor tingling sensations. There is a trembling of the hands;
- threshold (non-debilitating), under the influence of which, the employee physically can not overcome the contraction of muscles. He is unable to unclench his hand and release the immediate source of tension;
- threshold fibrillation. Its effect leads to the arrest of the human heart, causing a contraction of the heart muscles.
For the human body does not carry anythreats variable 0.6-1.5 mA and a constant 5-7 mA current. However, a variable 10-15 mA and a constant 50-80 mA carry a certain threat to human life, but not fatal.
It is generally believed that in buildings of increased and not heightened danger, the threat carries a voltage of more than 40V. And as for extremely dangerous constructions, the voltage from 12V is critically dangerous in them.
Necessary ways of protection
There is a sufficient amount of funds andways to protect a person from electric shock. And every citizen who uses electricity should know about this. Especially these skills are extremely necessary for workers of various enterprises. After all, they are most often endangered. Situations with a person's electric shock are quite common in mines, various factories, etc. It is therefore very important to be extremely cautious, to comply with all recommendations, rules and duties in the performance of their work.
When creating a high-quality security system, one very important rule must be observed. And it consists in the fact that dangerous parts that pass current must be made inaccessible to humans.
As for the protective measures themselves from the electric shock, they usually distinguish:
- Using insulating overlays, it is permissible and the use of double insulation.
- Inaccessibility of current-carrying parts.
- The use of a small voltage (in rooms with increased danger, from 42V, and in premises of special danger-from 12V).
- Protective equipment grounding.
- Use of special protective equipment.
- Protective zeroing of equipment.
Hard and air insulation
How to provide protection? The use of solid insulation helps prevent a contact with the conductor of electricity.
There is another option. It's about air insulation. But only using it alone will not be enough. An obstacle is needed, which will limit the access of unauthorized persons. To do this, we recommend using different code keys and locking devices.
In general, two categories of protection againstelectric shock - individual and collective. That's not all. They are still divided into additional electro-protective means and the main ones, the application of which is mandatory.
Ways of precaution
The basic measures of protection against electric shock should be aimed at reliable isolation for a sufficiently long time. They include:
- rods (insulating);
- voltage indicators;
- stairs (insulating).
Some security methods applyadditionally. But they can be used only in conjunction with the main ones. Otherwise, security will not be fully ensured. So, these methods of protection include:
- Signs and posters for electrical safety.
- Portable grounding.
- Supports and linings (insulating).
- Dielectric mats.
- Dielectric gloves (in such gloves work with voltage up to 1000V is possible).
- Insulating stands.
- Dielectric galoshes.
- Dielectric caps and gaskets.
As already mentioned above, there are alsoindividual means of protection against electric shock (for short, PPE), which include: head protection devices (helmets, helmets, etc.), eye and face protection (various masks, glasses, etc.), gloves etc. This is not all. There are also technical measures to protect against electric shock (abbreviated TSZ).
There are not many professionals among us. Therefore, it is so important to understand certain terms. You must clearly understand all the rules and standards of safety of life, in order to avoid the terrible consequences in the future. Forewarned is forearmed! This saying never loses its relevance.
So, protective grounding is an electrical connection to the ground or its equivalent of metal non-conductive parts, which can be directly energized.
We remember one more term. Protective zeroing is the electrical connection of the open conductive parts of the electrical installation, which may be under voltage due to a short circuit.
And what is equalization of potentials? This is the connection of parts conducting a current to equalize their potentials. This term is often used by electricians.
Equalization of potentials is directly reducing the potential difference on the surface using protective conductors installed in the ground and connected to the grounding device.
A protective shutdown means the use of automatic installations, the purpose of which is to automatically turn off the power for safety reasons. We hope that you remember these terms.
Now we will talk about the modern form of technicalmeasures to protect against electric shock. These are circuit breakers VA. They are used to conduct current. In case of short circuits and strong voltage drops, it automatically switches off. These devices guarantee safety in use and long-term operation. Automatic circuit-breaker VA is most often installed in enterprises.
Provision of 1st medical aid for direct electric shock
Of course, it is important to create all the conditions for,so that no accidents occur. Every employee must strictly observe all the precautionary measures and safety rules. However, accidents still occur. An important task is to help the victims before the arrival of an ambulance. Remember: every second is important here. Assistance provided to the victim within the first minutes after the defeat, in 90% saves life. In the meduzhod for the injured in the defeat, there are two main stages:
- Relief of the victim from direct action of an electric current.
- Provision of the first necessary medical assistance to the victim.
It is very important to have signs and posters for electrical safety. After all, they can save someone's life!
To release the victim from exposure toit is necessary to disconnect this voltage or to remove the source of electric current away from the person. Anyone who provides first aid should also follow all precautions in order not to aggravate the situation.
The shocked man remained conscious? Then it should be left alone until an ambulance arrives. If he has lost consciousness, but there are signs of breathing, then it is necessary to put and warm the victim, and then try to bring him into feelings. In the absence of any signs of life, it is necessary to do a heart massage in combination with artificial respiration.