What is a telegram? Detailed analysis
The article tells about what a telegram is, about the prototypes of the modern telegraph and current state of affairs of this type of communication.
From the very beginning of the development of human societythere was a need for methods of fast data transmission and communication. Initially, this was done by foot or horse messengers, but this method of delivery of reports was very slow, and even in the conditions of military operations, the deliverer could simply be killed. In addition, even postal services that appeared in the Middle Ages could not meet all the needs of people in communication, and throughout history, inventors have searched for methods of fast and reliable distance communication. And to answer the question, what is a telegram, for starters it is worth mentioning how this technology developed.
Probably, the first such can be considered smokesignals from campfires, a similar method used by African tribes. There is also evidence of its use in ancient Rome. But this method was extremely unreliable, suited only for monosyllabic signals and strongly depended on the weather or time of day, and gradually it was replaced by a heliograph - the method of signal feeding by mirrors of reflected sunlight. He also strongly depended on the weather, and the distance was limited to the line of sight.
In 1792 the first network was created in Franceoptical telegraphs. The method was based on the supply of light signals through lamps and semaphore lanterns. However, he did not find widespread use in commercial use, as it was expensive and required a large number of intermediate optical stations.
Attempts to create an electric telegraph began inearly XIX century, and a number of scientists have succeeded. However, the first who patented such a device and brought almost to perfection was the American Samuel Morse in 1840. They also developed Morse code, where each letter was matched by a set of dots and dashes. The design of his vehicles was so successful that it remained unchanged for many decades. And soon the inhabitants of all the continents of the Earth could exchange telegrams. So what is a telegram?
A telegram is a message that is sentby telegraph equipment using the electronic form of communication by wire. Let us analyze this process in more detail. It is worth noting that, depending on the time or equipment, the method of transmission might have been slightly different, but its meaning has always remained the same.
First, the operator of the telegraph service recordedtext or issued to the visitor who wants to send such a message, like a telegram, a form that he filled in himself and pointed out the addressee. Then, through the Morse code, information was transferred to the final or intermediate station, where the machine automatically printed a paper tape covered with dots and dashes. After that, the receiving employee translated it into familiar letters, and the messenger delivered the telegram to the addressee. So now we know what a telegram is.
Current state of affairs
More than one and a half centuries, beginning with a widedistribution and use of telegraphs, they remained the only means of communication that provided almost instantaneous delivery of messages. A little later, with the development of telephone communications, this changed, but still this type of message, like a telegram, was widely used. "Mail of Russia", by the way, is one of the few where the possibility of sending telegrams is still preserved.
Since the late 90s of the last century,As the development of mobile telephony and the Internet, telegraph services were becoming less popular. Despite the fact that they allowed from 1891 to send a message almost instantly to anywhere in the world, it could be done with a conventional phone or e-mail. In addition, the postman still needed time to deliver the telegram to the addressee.
Netherlands, India, Denmark - these countries onthe present moment completely abandoned such a method of communication as a telegram. "Mail of Russia" along with Germany, Sweden, Japan and Belgium still gives those who wish to send messages of this kind. However, in most of this country the network of telegraph poles has long been dismantled, and the messages are transmitted by modern digital technologies.
Influence on society
Like any mass-market technology,the telegraph had a great influence on society. With the laying of transatlantic cables it became possible to communicate with all the inhabited world continents. Telegraph was used by journalists who could transmit articles and describe events from any corner of the world, stock traders and ordinary people. He played an important role during the wars, when radio sets were not invented yet, and the only way to communicate was a telegram. Russia is one of the countries that still supports their sending and transfer.