A jump in height is difficult incoordination plan athletic discipline. It is performed after the athlete's preliminary run. The athlete has high requirements for physical fitness. Jumpers are four main phases of the jump, which constitute the very process of its implementation. It all starts with a take-off, after which there is a repulsion with a further flight across the bar. The process ends with a landing.
As for world achievements in such adiscipline as a high jump, the record for women now belongs to the Bulgarian S. Kostadinova, and for men - to the Cuban H. Sotomayor. Gymnasts overcame the slats, which were installed at an altitude of 209 cm and 245 cm, respectively. In an effort to improve performance, experts are developing all kinds of techniques and methods of jumping, which will be discussed later.
First, let's talk about the old methods. The oldest and simplest type of jumping is gymnastic. Its principle is that the athlete's swing leg moves through the bar after a take-off at a right angle. In this case landing of the jumper takes place on two legs. For a long time, the jump in height was carried out by another way, called "scissors". The essence of it is that the fly leg after the athlete's run at an angle of 40 degrees sharply throws himself over the bar, and in parallel with her, the leg that pushes away is transferred. In connection with the high location of the center of gravity of the body, high results using this method is almost impossible to achieve. The jump in height, which is called "wave", is a variation of the previous one and its continuation, but now nobody uses this technique.
Particular attention deserves a way to jump,called "rollback". It is one of the most rational species. Its main feature is that the jumper is repelled by a foot that is closer to the bar. After the thrust, the foot of the leg takes a straightened state. At the same time, the torso rotates with the pushing to the breast of the jogging leg. The run takes place at an angle of 45 degrees, and the athlete stretches along the bar and moves through it sideways. When a high jump is made in this way, a landing occurs on both hands and a jogging leg.
In the development of this technique, anotherits variety. It was called a "jump jump" and it boils down to the fact that the gymnast turns the torso more and overcomes the bar in the downward position with the belly. The run angle here, in contrast to the "rolling", is up to 40 degrees.
The most common and popular nowis the method by which most professional gymnasts perform high jumps - the "flop" technique. It was first shown by V. Fesbury at the Mexican Olympic Games in 1968. When it is used, the athlete performs a run on an imaginary arc with a radius of about 12 meters on his toes, which reduces the center of gravity. Essentially helps with this swing hands. The thrust is very powerful due to the high horizontal speed that was developed during the takeoff run. First, the gymnast in the flight is back to the bar. Further, the jogging leg in the knee is bent, and the femur thigh is straightened. By deflecting the lumbar part of the athlete's back while he moves over the bar, a high jump provides a very economical transition.