Socialism and capitalism: what is the difference?
Capitalism, socialism, communism - forms of economic organization of society. They can be called stages in the development of social relations. Many thinkers were studying them. Different authors have different views on capitalism and socialismm, to other models that came to replace them, and the consequences of their existence. Let's consider the basic concepts.
The system of capitalism and socialism
Capitalism is called the economic modelproduction and distribution, which is based on private property, freedom of entrepreneurial activity, legal equality of economic entities. The key criterion in making decisions in such conditions is the desire to increase capital, to obtain maximum profit.
The transition from capitalism to socialism it did not happen in all countries. The determining criterion for their consistent existence was the form of the state system. Meanwhile, signs capitalism and socialism are inherent to one degree or another to economic models of almost all countries. In some countries, the rule of capital is still preserved today.
If we carry out a superficial a comparison of capitalism and socialism, it can be noted that there is between themclose connection. The first concept is an economic abstraction. It reflects the characteristic features of the economic model at a certain stage of development. However, the real economy of any country has never been based solely on private-property relations, and business has never been absolutely free.
The transition from capitalism to socialism in a number of countries was very painful. It was accompanied by popular upheavals, revolutions. At the same time whole classes of society were destroyed. For example, there was transition from capitalism to socialism in Russia.
Distinctive features of models
Different countries developed and switched to different stages at different times. It hovered from many factors. In the West, for example, for a long time dominated feudalism. Capitalism and Socialism became the next stages of the development of society. However, the latter has survived in the eastern countries.
Although between capitalism and socialism there are many differences, the first has a number of features that are not characteristic of him. Among them:
- Limitation of ownership of property, including the size of land and real estate.
- Antitrust Rules.
- Customs barriers.
Capitalism, Socialism and Democracy
Schumpeter - American and Austrian economist -proposed such a concept as "creative destruction." For him, capitalism was associated with private property, the economy of entrepreneurship, the market mechanism.
Schumpeter studied the economic dynamics of changes in society. Occurrence capitalism, socialism and democracy he explained the emergence of innovation. Due to their introduction into different opportunities, resources and other production factors, actors begin to create something new.
At the core of capitalist development, the author called "creative destruction". Entrepreneurs, in his opinion, are carriers of innovation. At the same time, economic entities are helped by lending.
Schumpeter believed that capitalism made it possible to achieveunprecedented levels of well-being and personal freedom. Meanwhile, he estimated the future of this model rather pessimistically. The author believed that the further development of society would destroy capitalism. Liberalism and Socialism become a consequence of its penetration into allsocial spheres of life. That is, in fact, the success of the model will lead to its collapse. The author explained such consequences by the fact that new systems will destroy the conditions on which there may exist capitalism: or socialism (in Russia and it happened, for example), or any other new model in any case will come to replace it.
In his works, Schumpeter paid special attention to democracy. The author analyzed socialism and capitalism, formulated a probable future developmentsociety. In the framework of research, the key issue was the problem of the relationship between the socialist model of organization and the democratic form of government.
Studying the development of the Soviet state, in which the capitalism, socialism, communism, the changes were premature. The situation in the country Schumpeter considered socialism in a distorted form. To solve economic problems, the authorities used dictatorial methods. The author is closer to the English and Scandinavian social democratic system. Comparing development capitalism and socialism in different countries, these systems seemed to him the least evil.
Consider, the difference between capitalism and socialism. Different thinkers differentiate the signs of the one and the other model. The main general characteristics of socialism can be considered:
- Universal equality.
- Limitation of private-property relations.
AT difference from capitalism, under socialism Subjects could have items only inpersonal property. In this case capitalist enterprises were replaced by corporate ones. For socialism, the formation of communes is characteristic. Within these associations, all property is common.
Socialists opposed the capitalists inmainly because to achieve their goals the latter exploited people. At the same time, there was a clear division of classes. With the development of private property relations, the division of the layers became more and more distinct.
Differences between socialism and capitalism especially clearly manifested in Russia. People, dissatisfied with the conditions of life and work, advocated justice and equality, the eradication of oppression, which was widespread in the country. In other countries, capitalism was not so painful. The fact is that other societies quickly passed their transformation. Socialists considered the destruction of private property relations as one of the ways to achieve the ultimate goal - the formation of an organized society.
The concept of Mises
The goal of socialism, according to the author, istransfer of production assets from private ownership to state ownership. This is necessary to eliminate the operation. In capitalist society, a person was suspended from the results of his labor. The task of socialism is to bring the individual closer to the benefits, to reduce the differentiation of income. The result should be a harmonious and free development of personality.
At the same time, the elements of inequality may persist, but they should not hinder achievement of the goals.
Today, socialism distinguishes two key trends: Marxism and anarchism.
According to the representatives of the second direction, inWithin the framework of state socialism, the exploitation of the people, the removal of man from wealth, and other problems will persist. Accordingly, anarchists believe, real socialism can be established only when the state is destroyed.
Marxists called the model of socialismsociety at the stage of transition from capitalism to communism. In other words, they did not consider this model ideal. Socialism was for the Marxists a kind of preparatory stage for the creation of a society of social justice. Since socialism follows capitalism, it retains capitalist features.
The main ideas of socialism
In accordance with the goals set, programs were developed to achieve them.
The result of labor, in particular, was assumeddistribute according to the contribution of each individual producer. He had to get a receipt, which reflected the scope of his work. In accordance with it, the producer could receive commodities from the public stock.
The dominant under socialism was proclaimedprinciple of equivalence. In accordance with it, the same amount of labor was exchanged. However, since different people have different abilities, they must receive an unequal share of consumer goods.
In the property of people there can be nothing but personal commodities. Unlike capitalism, in private entrepreneurship was a criminal offense.
Manifesto of the Communists
The Communist Party was formed after the elimination of capitalism. The Communists based their program on socialist ideas. The Manifesto reflected the following features of the new system:
- Expropriation of land ownership, use of rents to cover government costs.
- Establishment of a high progressive tax.
- Cancellation of inheritance law.
- Confiscation of property belonging to rebels and emigrants.
- Centralization of credit resources in the hands of the state through the formation of a state bank with state capital and a monopoly of power.
- An increase in the number of SOEs, implements of production, improvement of land, clearing them for arable land according to a single plan.
- Establishment of a state monopoly on transport.
- Combining industry and agriculture, the gradual elimination of differences between the city and the countryside.
- Equal labor service for all.
- Free public education of children, the cessation of the exploitation of child labor in factories.
Features of the emergence of socialism
The ideology developed over a fairlylong time. However, the very term "socialism" appeared for the first time only in the 30s. 19th century. Its author is the French theorist Pierre Leroux. In 1934 he published an article "On Individualism and Socialism."
The first ideas about the formation of a socialistideology arose in the 16th century. They expressed the spontaneous protest of the lower (exploited) strata during the initial stage of capital accumulation. Ideas about an ideal society that corresponds to human nature, in which there is no exploitation, and the lower class has all the benefits, have come to be called utopian socialism. The founders of the concept are T. Mohr and T. Campanella. They believed that public ownership would ensure the formation of conditions for an equitable distribution of goods, equality, social peace and well-being of the population.
Development of the theory during the 17-19 centuries.
A lot of thinkers tried to find the formula of the ideal world, because in the rich capitalist society there was a huge number of poor people.
A special contribution to the development of socialistThe concepts were introduced by A. Saint-Simon, S. Fourier, R. Owen. They formed their ideas under the influence of events in France (the Great Revolution), as well as active development of capital.
It is worth saying that the concept of theoristsSocialist utopianism sometimes differed significantly. However, all of them believed that the conditions for immediate changes on fair terms were formed in the society. Those who held high positions in the society should become the initiators of reforms. The people who are in need must help the poor, ensure a happy life for everyone. Socialist ideology was aimed at protecting the interests of the working class, proclaiming social progress.
The Socialists proclaimed the following ideas:
- From each individual according to his abilities, each ability on business.
- Harmonious and all-round development of personality.
- Elimination of the differences between the village and the city.
- A variety of spiritual and physical labor.
- Free development of each individual as a condition for the development of the whole society.
The Utopians were to some extent maximalists. They believed that in society should be happy or all at once, or none at all.
Ideology of the proletariat
The achievement of universal well-being was soughtand the Communists. Communism is considered an extreme manifestation of socialism. This ideology was more consistent in its striving to reform society by establishing collective ownership of the means of production, and in some cases of consumer goods.
At the very beginning of the 19th century, Marxism was formed. It was regarded as the theoretical basis of the proletarian movement. Marx and Engels formulated a socio-political, economic and philosophical theory that had a tremendous impact on the development of society in the second half of the early 19th century. Communist ideology and Marxism began to be considered synonymous.
The society, according to Marx, is not an open model of a happy order. Communism, the Marxists thought, is a natural result of the development of civilization.
The followers of the concept believed thatcapitalist relations form the conditions for a social revolution, the elimination of private property, the transition to socialism. Marxists distinguished the key contradiction of the model: it arose between the social nature of labor, formed by the market and industry, and private ownership of production assets.
Capitalism, in the opinion of Marxists, created its ownThe destroyer is the proletariat. The liberation of the working people is the goal of a social revolution. At the same time, the proletariat, liberating itself, eliminates forms of exploitation and against all working people.
To socialism, according to Marxists, societycan come only in the process of the historical creation of the working class. And it, in turn, must be realized through the social revolution. As a result, the achievement of socialism has become the goal of millions of people.
Formation of the communist formation
This process, in the opinion of Marx and Engels, presupposes several stages:
- Transition period.
- The establishment of socialism.
The development of a new model is a long process. It must be based on humanistic principles that proclaim a person the highest value.
Communism allows, in the opinion of Marxists,to form a society of free and conscious workers. It should establish public self-government. At the same time, the state as an administrative mechanism should cease to exist. In a communist society, there should not be classes, and social equality must be embodied in the setting "From each individual according to his ability and each according to his needs."
Marx considered communism the way to the unlimited flowering of a person free from exploitation, the beginning of a true history.
At the present stage of development of societyformed a huge number of different political and social trends. The ideology of social democracy, so popular at the present time, is rooted in the reformist direction in the Second International. His ideas are presented in the writings of Bernstein, Vollmar, Jaurès, etc. The concept of liberal reformism, including Keynesianism, had a special impact on it.
A distinctive feature of the Social-Democraticideology - the desire for reformism. The concept justifies the policy of regulation, redistribution of profit in a market economy. One of the prominent theoreticians of the Second International Bernstein categorically denied the inevitability of the abolition of capitalism and the onset of socialism in connection with this. He believed that socialism can not be reduced to the replacement of private property relations by the public. The way to it is to search for new collective forms of production in conditions of the peaceful formation of the capitalist economic model and political democracy. The slogan of the reformists was the statement "The goal is nothing, the movement is everything".
Its common features were described in the 50's. last century. The basis of the concept was the Declaration adopted at the international conference in Frankfurt am Main.
In accordance with the program documents,democratic socialism is a path different both from capitalism and from real socialism. The first, as the adherents of the concept believed, made it possible to create a huge number of productive forces, but at the same time elevated the ownership of citizens' rights. The Communists, in turn, destroyed freedom by creating another class society, a new but inefficient economic model based on forced labor.
The Social Democrats attach the same importanceprinciples of individual freedom, solidarity and justice. In their opinion, the difference between capitalism and socialism is not in the scheme of organization of the economy, but in the position that a person occupies in society, in his freedom, the opportunity to participate in making decisions that are significant for the state, and the right to realize oneself in one area or another.
There are 2 forms:
- Based on absolute state control over the economy. An example is the command-administrative and planning systems.
- Market socialism. It is understood as such an economic model in which priority is given to state property, but at the same time the principles of a market economy are realized.
Within the framework of market socialism,establishes self-government in enterprises. A provision is made that self-government (not only in the production sphere, but also in society as a whole) acts as the first element of socialism.
For this, according to Bazgalin, it is necessary to develop forms of free self-organization of citizens - from nationwide registration to self-government and democratic planning.
The disadvantages of market socialism can be consideredits ability to reproduce many problems of capitalism, including social inequality, instability, negative impact on nature. However, the adherents of this trend in the development of society believe that all these problems must be eliminated by active state intervention.