Vsevolod the Big Nest: a brief biography and a history of government
Prince Vsevolod the Big Nest, brief biographywhich is in all the textbooks on the history of Russia, is best known for the fact that it was with him that the north-east of Russia became the most important and influential political center of the East Slavic world. Therefore, this ruler deserved a good reputation among grateful descendants.
Childhood and youth
Vsevolod was born in 1154 in the family of the founderMoscow - Yuri Dolgoruky. He was the youngest son of the prince, who died a few years after the birth of a child. After Yuri began to rule the elder brother of Vsevolod Andrew Bogolyubsky. He was the son of Yuri from his second wife. In 1162, Andrei expelled from his lands Vsevolod (still a child), his mother, as well as two other brothers - Mstislav and Vasilko.
Rurikovich went to Constantinople, wherefound shelter at the court of Emperor Manuel Comnenus. In fifteen years Vsevolod the Big Nest, whose brief biography can tell about a lot of unexpected turns in his fate, returned home, having made peace with his older brother. He participated in the campaign against Kiev in 1169. It was the war of the northern princes against the old southern capital. For several decades Rus has been divided into several independent states, each of which argued for leadership. In each city ruled the Rurikovichi, which turned the political conflict into a family squabble. When in 1169 Kiev still fell, he lost even illusive chances to be called the capital of Russia.
Viceroy in Kiev
A few years later in the Mother of Russian citiesThe young Vsevolod the Big Nest was sent to govern as a viceroy. A short biography of the prince says that he did not last long on the banks of the Dnieper. In 1173, a few weeks after the appearance in Kiev, he was defeated by the children of the Smolensk ruler Rostislav, who also claimed the local throne. Vsevolod was taken prisoner, but was bought by his older brother Mikhail.
The struggle for the Vladimir Principality
All this time, Vladimir ruled AndreiBogolyubsky. However, in 1174 he was killed by a group of conspirators (own boyars). His death caused the internecine war for power over the northeast of Russia. Andrei did not have any children. Therefore, on the one hand, brothers Mikhail and Vsevolod declared their rights to the throne, and on the other - the nephews and children of Rostislav, the elder brother who died many years ago, - Mstislav and Yaropolk. The conflict also broke out between cities. In the principality, once owned by Yuri Dolgoruky, several political centers were formed (Vladimir, Suzdal, Rostov). The aristocracy tried to make its city the chief in the northeast of Russia.
First, Vladimir Yuryevich was entrenched in Vladimir. He was supported by Vsevolod the Big Nest, whose brief biography describes various political alliances with relatives. However, Mikhail unexpectedly died in 1176, and Rostislavichi still wanted to capture Vladimir-on-Klyazma. They ruled in Rostov and Suzdal. In addition, they were supported by the Ryazan prince Gleb.
Union with Svyatoslav Vsevolodovich
To the aid of Vsevolod, who replaced the elderbrother in Vladimir, came Chernigov ruler Sviatoslav Vsevolodovich. In 1176-1177 years. they one by one defeated the troops of Mstislav (Lipitskaya battle) and Gleb (the battle of Koloksha). All the enemy princes were captured. Gleb soon died in confinement. Rostislavich was blinded and released. After these events, Vsevolod Y. Big Nest, whose brief biography was marked by an important success, became the sole ruler of northeastern Rus. He made his capital Vladimir-on-Klyazma.
Becoming the sole ruler, Vsevolod was engagedorganization of campaigns against the eastern neighbors (Mordovians and Volga Bulgars). He also fought for influence in Kiev and Novgorod, who tried to defend his republican political system. The struggle was a mixed success for both sides. During the years of his rule, Vsevolod the Big Nest became known for his wisdom and weight. Biography (briefly talk about any of the princes of Russia is almost impossible, too much will be missed) it is well described in the multivolume "History of the Russian State" by Nikolai Karamzin.
The question of succession to the throne
In the last years of his life, Vsevolod the Big Nest,whose biography we are considering, was concerned about the problem of succession in his possessions. He had many children (8 sons and 4 daughters). That is why he, in fact, received the historical nickname Big Nest.
Between his two older sons - Constantineand Yuri (also known as George) - a dispute arose over the right to inheritance. In order to reconcile the children, Vsevolod called a council. Constantine, who was the father's deputy in Rostov, was supposed to get Vladimir, and Rostov had to be given to Yuri. However, the eldest son refused to obey this father's order, because he believed that he was entitled to both senior cities in the principality. Vsevolod did not forgive Constantine such defiant behavior and deprived him of Vladimir, giving the capital to Yuri. While his father was alive, the brothers somehow resigned themselves and lived quietly. However, with the death of Vsevolod in 1212, an internecine war broke out in northeastern Russia.
Results of the Board
Nevertheless, it is with this Prince Vladimirskythe principality flourished. Vsevolod strengthened the central power, depriving the influence of the Rostov boyars. He did a lot of decorating and equipping Vladimir, which regularly built temples and other important buildings for people's lives.
Vsevolod became the last individual rulernorth-eastern Russia. After the death of the prince, his numerous sons divided the state. The invasion of the Mongols in a few years further exacerbated this split. Also, Prince Vsevolod the Big Nest, whose brief biography is full of information about wars in various parts of Russia, became the last ruler of Vladimir, who still had influence on the southern principalities. After it, during the entire 13th century, they gradually moved into the orbit of Lithuania's interests.