Speech: the properties of speech. Oral and written speech
The speech is divided into two main oppositionsto each other, and in some respects of a matched type. This is oral and written speech. They differed in their historical development, so they discover different principles of the organization of linguistic means. General literary language tools that combine such types as oral and written speech are the basis for the formation and functioning of synonymous series. Separating their book-written and verbal-colloquial means are used in a full set in their type, and in the opposite they get access with certain restrictions.
Oral is the main factor,uniting different varieties into which oral speech is divided. The properties of written speech are realized in varieties of book-written type. Of course, form is not the only factor of unification. But in the oral-colloquial type it predetermines the formation and functioning of specific linguistic means, which differ from written oral speech. The properties of speech are related to the nature of its generation. Let's consider it in more detail.
Differences in the generation of oral and written speech
The difference of forms is based on the deeppsychophysiological difference. Psychologists found that the mechanisms of generation and perception of oral and written speech are not the same. When generating a written speech, there is always time to think about the formal plan of the utterance, due to which the degree of its structure is high.
Accordingly, and when reading is always possiblestop, think more deeply about the written, accompany it with your personal associations. This allows both the writer and the reader to translate the necessary information from the RAM into a long-term one. Not the same when speaking and listening. Its features are sounding, historically, the primary oral speech. The properties of speech in this case are determined by the fact that it is a kind of stream that, only with its production, can be interrupted by the speaker in accordance with his intentions to finish or suspend information. The listener must in his reception follow the speaker in time, and he is not always where he needs, there is the opportunity to stop for a deeper thought. Therefore, short-term memory acts mainly when oral speech is perceived. The properties of speech in this case consist in the fact that it is spontaneous, one-time, it can not be repeated again in the form in which it was already pronounced.
When studying a foreign language duringpreparation for the lesson, you can prepare each sentence in advance, but in the class itself it does not work out: the task of spontaneous production requires anew in a smooth flow of speech to issue speech portions. The characteristic of oral speech is that it can not be fully prepared, it is produced in a largely automated way. If the speaker strongly controls it, it will lose the quality of spontaneity and naturalness. Control over yourself is fully possible only in a slow educational speech, with its unnatural tempo that gives out its non-original character.
Scoring of written text
From the produced spontaneous oral speech followsto distinguish between the simple scoring of a written text, carried out by announcers, artists, and sometimes by speakers. Such scoring does not change anything in the text, and although it sounds, it remains the same as it was written. At the same time, the characteristic of written speech is preserved, all its properties. From the oral point, only the intonation contour and possible phonetic expressiveness appear in it. That is, the acoustic properties of speech sounds vary. It is interesting to observe EA Bryzgunova, who compared actor's scoring of the same text: they differed. This means that as soon as an oral speech element appears, in this case intonation, discrepancies arise due to individualization.
Verbal communication is always individual. For writing, this is not the general quality of all varieties. Individual only artistic speech and partly speech of non-strict newspaper genres. Each speaker has his own way of characterizing a person as a person from his psychological, social, even professional characteristics and common culture. This applies not only to conversational speech. In parliament, for example, each deputy's speech highlights his personal qualities and intellectual abilities, gives his social portrait. Oral coherent speech often means more to the listener than the information contained in the presentation, for which the performance takes place.
Features of oral speech
If one addresses the factors of division, the currentin an oral-colloquial type, it turns out that in addition to those in the book-written type, there are some additional ones. Some properties of oral speech are common for the whole orally-colloquial type and are peculiar to it in contrast to the book-written, dividing the modern Russian literary language into two parts. Others take part in distinguishing varieties of the most oral-conversational type. We list these additional factors. Such properties of speech are addressedness, situativeness, speech appearance (use of monologues and dialogues).
Addressability of oral speech
Oral speech is always addressed, anddirectly to the listener, who perceives it simultaneously with her products as an addressee here and now. All sorts of technical tricks like deferred and then reproduced records can not be taken into account, since they do not deprive the communicative act of the main thing: the momentary perception, where temporal synchronism is important. The addressee of speech can be: a) individual; b) collective; c) Mass.
These three types of addressing the oral literaryspeeches coinciding with the action of other factors of its division (all of these factors, including and addressing, are unidirectional), participate in the allocation of three varieties of oral literary speech (oral-colloquial type of literary language): 1) oral-colloquial; 2) oral scientific; 3) radio and television.
Addressing written language
Here, addressing is not immediate: The mediator between the author of the text and the reader is paper, and it allows you to postpone reading anyhow, that is, eliminate the factor of physical time, while speech itself is endowed with qualities of non-spontaneity and reusability. Unlike oral speech, the proverb "The word is not a sparrow, it flies out - you will not catch it" is not applicable to it. Such indirect addressing can not be a factor of division.
The basic properties of speech include alsosituationality. It is inherent in the colloquial type, where the situation makes up verbally not expressed meaning, any understatement and inaccuracies. It is usually considered an exclusive quality of spoken language, but, strictly speaking, is constantly found. This shows, for example, the analysis of poetic speech, when a biographical commentary is required for an accurate understanding and feeling of the poem. In general, comments of this kind, providing a work of any genre, can enrich the perception and understanding of the author's intention. The general apperception basis of the speaker and the listener, the generality of their knowledge and life experience, is added to the situational situation. All this allows verbal hints and provides insight from a half-word. In part, situationality is inherent in a collectively addressed speech. For example, a teacher knows what kind of listeners he has, what they know and can, what they are interested in. Massively addressed to texts, situationality is not inherent. Thus, it acts as a factor in the isolation of spoken language and as an incomplete factor characterizing oral scientific speech. Naturally, situationality can not be inherent in any kind of written type.
Using monologues and dialogues in written language
With regard to the ratio of monologic anddialogical species, this property of both written and oral types in the division of the literary language into varieties appears in different ways. In the book-written type, it does not play the role of a factor of division, in oral-colloquial it is such a factor. This is due to the different ratio of monologue and dialogue in written and oral versions. In the book-written type, scientific speech is usually monologic, but in it one can see signs of dialogicness. Although this can be disagreed: if they are, they are not direct, but rather indirect. Business speech can be expressed in a monologue form, but solitary (usually) sentences expressing an order, request, instruction, order and so on and containing a verbal form of incentive (imperative) inclination, are close in form and organization to the replica of the dialogue. Newspaper articles are usually monologous, but they can contain elements of dialogue that imitate questions to the reader and his supposed answers, direct dialogue happens in the genres of interviews, correspondence with readers, answers to questions, etc. In the artistic speech, dialogue is a means of communicating heroes, monologic view. But there are genres completely dialogical. Speech, of course, is about plays and dramaturgy as a form of art. On the whole, it turns out that as a factor of the dialogue-monologue division, they appear indistinctly, but quite clearly show the growing dialogism from left to right.
Monologues and Dialogues in Speech
In the oral-colloquial type, a fundamentally differentratio. It is determined by the fact that dialogical and monologic types of speech, as a consequence, have different organization, namely: monologue is a segmented syntax, dialogue is a short conversational remarks of a rigid, specifically colloquial syntactic structure. Of course, in the written dialogue, too, there are syntactic features in comparison with the monologue, which is the space for the implementation of numerous syntactic models, the whole wealth of written speech. But here the differences of a dialogical and monologic form do not entail such fundamental differences in the syntax, where specifically colloquial models are formed in the space of dialogue. In general, dialogicality in the oral-colloquial type decreases from right to left. And comes to a minimum in oral scientific speech. Equality of dialogue and monologue allows among other factors of division to distinguish orally-colloquial speech as an independent variety, separated by this feature from radio and television and oral scientific speech.