Greece. Homeric period
After the Mycenaean period in the history of Greecedifficult times began. This was due to the invasion of the land of warlike tribes who made war and piracy a noble occupation. So began the Homeric period. Despite many negative moments, he could not stop the development of ancient civilization. What is this period and in honor of whom it got that name?
The role of Homeric poems in the study of Greek history
ХІ-ІХ century BC in the history of Greece acceptedto call the Homeric period. This is due to the fact that Homer's two greatest literary works describe the social, economic and cultural life of the Greek nation of that time. It is about the poems "Iliad" and "Odyssey." The first poem tells about the events of the Trojan War, and the second about the return of Odysseus, who was the king of the island of Ithaca.
Homer's works are still the mostancient and purest source of information about the life of the Hellenes in the XI-IX century BC. From them you can learn about all aspects of life of that time. For example, on the material situation, public institutions, religious and moral concepts.
Researchers believe that even the presence of artistic fiction did not go beyond Greece. Its inhabitants were not yet well acquainted with representatives of other peoples.
Contribution of Archeology
About Homeric period, researchers do not knowonly from poems. An important contribution to understanding this historical era was made by archeology. Virtually no surviving cultural monuments of the time. This was due to the invasion of the Dorian tribes that came from the north, and threw away the Greek culture several centuries ago.
However, necropolises were preserved, which became the source of the main archaeological materials.
The term "dark ages"
The arrival of the Dorians adversely affected the development ofsociety. The population has decreased significantly, people have stopped building stone buildings. The decline also came with writing. In addition to the "Iliad" and "Odyssey," the Homer period did not preserve other written documents.
Due to material poverty, scarcity of archaeological finds and other data in the history of Greece, the term "dark ages" appeared.
Trade and craft fell into disrepair. The Dorians were interested only in skills that related to military affairs. They did not care about art. Although at the feasts they liked to listen to music. What was developing at that time?
Dorians contributed to the development of pottery, shipbuilding, agriculture, technology of metal processing.
With their arrival, tradeconnection. They engaged in aggressive piracy, because of what scared away from the Greek harbors Phoenicians and Egyptians. The old ties were established only at the end of the Dorian period.
The appearance and development of Greek policies inHomeric period did not affect the creation of a single strong state. Centralization of power did not happen. Each policy had its own king, which was supported by the council of elders.
An important role in Greek policies in the Homeric and archaic periods was played by the people's assembly. Together, the following questions were taken:
- on the expediency of the outbreak of another war;
- About whether there are enough slaves in the policy.
The appearance of policies contributed to the formation of a future Greek civilization.
In the Homer period of ancient Greece, societyreturned to tribal relations. There were no private property in the policies, all lands were public. Power was exercised through military democracy.
Classes have not yet been formed. But an agricultural stratum already existed, which existed within the city-state, that is, the policy.
Respect in society enjoyed only a man who is engaged in military affairs. Hunting and war were the only occupations worthy of a noble man.
In the Homeric period in history, the royal powerwas considered a divine institution. She inherited, usually transferred from father to elder son. However, the successor should have the following necessary qualities:
- to show courage in battles;
- be wise in the council;
- to be eloquent in public assemblies;
- master the martial art;
- to have good physical strength.
If the king became weak, old or unable to wage war, he was not obeyed.
The king possessed significant allotments of the earth, in hisHe had a large number of cattle, he had a palace. In addition, in accordance with the law, natural obligations were established in favor of the tsar. When the military mining was divided, the ruler received all the best, including slaves and jewels.
The king, as usual, gathered for discussion of important issues the people's assembly or the council of elders. Everything was as follows:
- the princes sat on stones beside the king, the people stood around;
- the tsar voiced his thoughts to the congregation;
- a nobleman who wished to express his opinion took an orator's staff;
- if the people approved the words of the nobleman, then he confirmed it with a cry;
- if the people did not support the nobles, there was silence.
Regardless of whether the people approve of the king's decision or not, he had to obey.
Also, the tsar served as a judge. But most often the warriors decided their disputes with the help of fights. Violence at that time was so common that a man always had to walk with a gun.
The appearance of slavery system
Gradually, there was a stratification of society insocial plan. A system of slavery began to emerge, but it was not like the classical version of the slave system. Slaves were obtained through military campaigns, and not because of the large gap in the social position of the inhabitants of the policy.
It was profitable to engage in the seizure and sale of slaves. They were used as a subject for exchange, they were given the most laborious and dirty work. However, the slave owners also worked. Moreover, some considered them to be members of their family.
In the Homeric era, family life hadnoble character. Children had to respect and love their parents. It was their sacred duty. If the son forgot about duty, he was pursued by the goddess of revenge. A father could curse a rebellious son. In this case, he lost his happiness, as well as his descendants to the third or fourth tribe.
At that time my wife held a respectable position indwelling. According to custom, a man gave his father a future wife, as if buying it. The girl was brought to a new house, where a cheerful feast was held. The Greek's wife was considered his only legal partner. She had to be faithful to her husband.
My wife was a mistress in the house. She was in charge of the economy, she was engaged in the manufacture of cloth, sewing clothes, washing. She also went out to the guests, communicated with them, took part in family affairs.
The Greeks were not polygamists, but they couldhave slaves captured in the war. Children from such relations were born free, they were brought up and lived together with the children of the legal wife. But after the death of his father, the children of the slave could count on a small share of their father's property. Legitimate descendants divided the inheritance into equal parts.
Geometric style as a visiting card of the era
From the Homeric period in the history of ancient Greecealmost no cultural monuments. However, at this time there were iron tools. With their help, people were able to cultivate large areas of land.
For the Homeric period of Greece, a specialstyle in ceramics - geometry. He assumed the construction of an ornament from the images of people and other objects on amphorae and other household things in geometric order.
At the end of the Homeric era, plots on the ceramicutensils have become richer and more complex. You can see competitions of athletes, scenes from mythology, fighting battles, dances. A similar style arose in Athens, from where it spread across Hellas and the islands of the Aegean Sea.
Gradually, the population grew, trade and craft revived. Ancient Greece approached a new period of its history - archaic.