Main types of inflorescences
All angiosperms have flowers. This is a modified shoots. And some plants form single flowers, and some - whole inflorescences.
What is an inflorescence?
This is not a single modified shoot, but a whole system of them, from which seeds with seeds are then formed. Inflorescences are usually delimited from the vegetative organs of the plant.
Classification of inflorescence
They can be classified depending on the presence of leaves on them, depending on the degree of branching, the direction of opening the flowers, the type of their growth and the type of apical meristems.
Types of inflorescences depending on the degree of branching
This is the most common classification. Types of inflorescences classified by this method are considered in biology classes at school.
According to this division, inflorescences can be, first of all, simple and complex.
Simple and complex inflorescences
Simple are those in which single flowers along the main axis are located.
Complex ones are those in which the branching is from three orders of magnitude or more.
For a detailed examination of each cluster of inflorescences, the table below is presented:
|Brush||Flowers are located evenly along the whole axis. They are planted on pedicels.|
|Ear||Flowers also more or less uniformly grow along the entire length of the axis. However, this inflorescence differs from the brush in that the flowers do not have pedicels.|
|Shield||This is a kind of brush. In the scutellum, the lower pedicels are longer, so that all the flowers line up in a horizontal row.|
|Umbrella||This, like many other simple types of inflorescences,a modified brush. Its axis is shortened, the pedicels are not located along its entire length, but all grow from the top. They have the same length, and the flowers are lined up in something like an umbrella dome.|
|Head||The axis of this inflorescence has a clavate shape. It is shortened. Flowers are located more or less evenly along its entire length. Pedicels absent.|
|Basket||The end of the axis of such an inflorescence is greatly expanded. It turns into a common bed for a set of tightly closed flowers.|
|Cob||It is a modified ear with a very thickened axis.|
|Complex||Panicle||Branched inflorescence. The degree of branching decreases to the top of the axis.|
|Complex flap||A modified version of the previous type of inflorescence. The interstices of the main axis are shortened.|
|Complex Ear||Along the axis more or less evenly collected simple ears.|
|Complex umbrella||It is formed from a set of simple umbrellas collected on the main axis.|
So we examined the main types of inflorescences. They all need to know. Now let's talk about plants, which are inherent in those or other inflorescences.
Which plants have inflorescences?
Let's look at the types of plants that have the above inflorescences.
So, for example, in a plant such as spring primrose, the type of inflorescence umbrella, in corn - cob.
For more details, let's look at the table.
|Inflorescence types||Plant Examples|
|Brush||All cruciferous, for example, cabbage, turnips, watercress, shepherd's bag|
|Ear||Lyubka, plantain, verbena, sedge|
|Umbrella||Ginseng, spring primrose, garlic, onion|
|Basket||Many composite flowers, such as sunflowers, asters, etc.|
|Complex flap||Millennial, rowanberry|
|Complex Ear||Wheat, wheat grass, barley|
|Complex umbrella||Parsley, carrots, dill|
Other inflorescence classifications
Depending on the presence of bracts on the inflorescences, three groups are distinguished:
Inflorescence of the first group are deprived of bracts. To this type belong cruciferous and other plants, such as wild radish.
In the marriage of the theotomical inflorescence, the bracts have a scaled shape. Such have lilac, cherry, lily of the valley.
Frondose inflorescences have bracts with well developed plates. Such have such plants as verbeynik, fuchsia, violets, etc.
Depending on the type of growth and the direction of opening the flowers, the inflorescence can be divided into two groups:
The first flowers open in the direction from the top of the axis to its base. To the group of cytosomes are such plants as the lungwort.
In the racemic type, the flowers unfold in the direction from the base of the axis to its apex. These are such plants as, for example, a shepherd's bag, as well as ivan-tea and others.
And the last classification of inflorescences - independing on the type of apical meristems. These are the educational tissues at the top of the shoot. According to this classification, there are two groups of inflorescences:
The open ones are also called indefinite. In them, the apical meristems remain in the vegetative state. Such inflorescences are possessed by hyacinths, lilies of the valley, and others.
Closed still are called specific. In them apical flowers are formed from the apical meristems. Such, for example, have a medlina, a bell.