Stylistics is ... Stylistics of English. Stylistics in Russian
Stylistics - this is what? The answer to this question will be obtained from the materials of the article. In addition, we will tell you about what categories and sections of stylistics exist in the Russian language, we will take a closer look at the styles and techniques of English.
Stylistics is a section of linguistics, orphilological discipline, which studies completely different conditions and principles for the choice of language communication, as well as methods of organizing language units. In addition, the section determines the differences in the presented principles, the ways of using styles.
There is the following division of such aphilological discipline, as stylistics: it is literary and linguistic sections. However, it should be noted that the named subtypes are not officially recognized.
Thus, the linguistic section of stylistics considers all the functional styles of speech, and the literary study studies plots, the system of images, the plot, etc., in a separate work taken.
It is impossible not to say that practicalThe style of the Russian language is closely connected with other sections of the course of this school subject. In connection with this, it will not be possible to study it separately from grammar and theoretical lexicology. After all, they serve as a kind of basis for characterizing language facilities.
Now you know what stylistics is. This is a special section of linguistics that has the following categories:
- style rules;
- stylistic rate;
- stylistic coloring of language units;
- correlation of methods of linguistic expression.
The main sections of the presented discipline are:
- text style;
- theoretical stylistics;
- stylistics of language units (or so-called resource stylistics);
- practical stylistics;
- Stylistics of varieties of Russian language use (or the so-called functional section).
As it was said above, the stylistics in Russianinformally divided into literary and linguistic. The latter is a whole science of speech styles. She studies various possibilities of language, namely: expressive, communicative, evaluative, cognitive, emotional and functional. Let's consider it in more detail. After all, this is the opportunity of the Russian language is given the most time in the secondary school program.
Functional speech styles
Russian stylistics clearly formulates the requirements for literate speech. In this regard, it is extremely important to know that our native language has five main styles, namely:
To have an idea of each, consider them in more detail.
This style of speech is characterized by a number of such features,as a monologic character, preliminary thinking, strict selection of linguistic devices and utterances, and normed speech. As a rule, all such facts are fully and accurately explained in such texts, all causal and investigative links between these or those phenomena are revealed, regularities and so forth are revealed.
This functional style of speech servesinformal or informal communication. It is characterized by the exchange of information on everyday issues, the expression of their thoughts or feelings. It should be specially noted that for this speech, spoken vocabulary is often used.
It is especially often used in variousarticles, essays, reports, feuilletons, interviews, during an oratorial speech, etc. Almost always journalistic style is used to influence people through magazines, newspapers, radio, television, booklets, posters, etc. It is characterized by solemn lexicon, phraseology, emotionally painted words, as well as verbatim phrases, the use of short sentences, "chopped" prose, rhetorical questions, repetitions, exclamations, etc.
Official and business style
It is a style of speech that is actively used insphere of official relations (jurisprudence, international relations, military industry, economics, advertising, government activities, communication in official institutions, etc.).
This style of speech is used in the artisticliterature. He quite strongly influences the reader's feelings and imagination, fully conveys the author's thoughts, and also applies all the richness of vocabulary, characterized by emotional speech and imagery. It should be noted that other styles can be used in it.
Stylistics as a discipline
As mentioned above, such a section in the mandatoryorder is included in the school curriculum. However, a few teaching hours are not enough to fully study the features of the Russian language styles. That is why the program of some higher educational institutions with a humanitarian bias includes a course such as "Stylistics and literary editing." Its goal is to get acquainted with the general theoretical issues of this discipline, as well as to develop practical skills of working with a certain text.
Stylistics of English
In order to achieve the highest possiblelevel of possession of one or another foreign language, it is not enough to master basic grammatical rules, and also learn a few hundred or thousand words. After all, it is extremely important to master a special art - "speaking". To do this, in your speech you need to apply not only all sorts of stylistic devices, but also to know how to correctly use those or other styles of speech.
What stylistic devices exist in English?
Having achieved an average level of Englishlanguage, I want to improve more and more. But for this it is necessary to learn to understand and feel well foreign. As a rule, this is done through comparison and analysis. Let's look at together what stylistic devices are used in English:
- Metaphors. This is a hidden comparison. It is used when a thing or a thing that is not peculiar to it is attributed to an object or person. It is extremely important to observe the transfer of certain qualities based on similarities. For example, instead of the word "stars" use "silver dust", instead of "sun" - "pancake", etc.
- Epithets. This technique emphasizes the quality of the face or object in the sentence, and also expresses the definition (for example, salt tears, true love or loud ocean).
- Comparison. This method compares more than one subject. This is necessary in order to identify differences and other inconsistencies. To find out the comparison in the sentence, it is necessary to pay attention to such words as "as though", "like", "as ... as", "as like to remind of", "such as", "to resemble"
- Metonymy. This means of expressiveness is used when a word is replaced by another, which is more similar in meaning (for example, "crown" and "sword").
- Antonomasia. This is a special type of metonymy, characterized by the replacement of proper names.
- Euphemisms and paraphrases. Such receptions in English are usedoften. The first means of expressiveness is used to soften some concept, and the second replaces the names of objects with a descriptive turn, and at the same time indicates their characteristic features.
- Hyperbola. This technique is used to exaggerateany qualities (that is, intentional selection). With the help of hyperbole, expressiveness and expressiveness can be given to the following statements: told you 100 times or have not seen for ages.
- Antithesis. For such a reception is characterized by the opposition of two phenomena or objects (in black and white or now or never).
- Irony. This method hides the true meaning of the statements. That is, the listener, the viewer or the reader should guess what lies behind those or other words (for example, She turned with the sweet smile of an alligator).
- Oxymoron and the paradox. These terms are one and the same concept. As a rule, it is used in cases when it is necessary to emphasize any judgment that contradicts common sense (for example, less is more, low skyscraper or pleasantly ugly face). The main difference between them is that an oxymoron is a phrase, and a paradox is a thought, an idea or a sentence.
Speech styles in English
As in Russian, the styles of speech in English differ not only expressive means and techniques, but also the general specifics. Let us consider them in more detail.
So, in English, there are the following styles of speech:
- Free, or so-called conversational style. It differs by quite pronounced deviations from the accepted norms and is divided into 2 subgroups: familiar-colloquial and literary-colloquial.
- Newspaper and information style. Designed for objective transmission of events (in written or oral speech). This style is not inherent in a subjective character or emotional evaluation.
- Officially-business. This style is based on all important documents and all business correspondence.
- Scientific and technical. This style is characterized by consistency and consistency.
- Art. This style is used in literaryworks. It is characterized by subjectivity, emotionality, the use of phraseological units, expressive means, as well as detailed and complex proposals. </ ul </ p>