/ / Styles of the Russian language. Culture of speech and style

Styles of the Russian language. Culture of speech and style

A section of science that studies the styles of Russianlanguage, called stylistics. Stylistics is a linguistic discipline that studies the means of expressiveness of speech and studies the laws of the language's work, conditioned by the most obvious and necessary use of its components, directly depending on the context, the meaning, the correlation with the concrete situation.

styles of russian language
The following paradigm can be distinguished: the style of language (gravitates toward the study of its resources), the style of speech (reveals the system for constructing text belonging to a particular style) and the style of the text. The latter is singled out by linguist Odintsov. He examines how the means of constructing texts are correlated with situational tasks, shows which language tools are needed to create material of a certain style, and also the use of these tools in different conditions of communication.

The central problem in the section "styles of speechRussian language "can be called the doctrine of the norm.It is a kind of sample (lexical, spelling, phonetic, orthoepic, semantic, logical, morphological, punctuation, phraseological, stylistic, word-building, etc.), without which it was not possible to qualitatively evaluate the speech There is a conditional division into the language and stylistic norm.Linguistic is engaged in evaluating the correct choice and use of the resources of the language itself.A stylistic determines how much it is appropriate to choose we have certain forms, components, units in relation to the communicative situation.

styles of speech of the Russian language
For example: the phrase "build a barn" in terms of the language norm corresponds to the canons, since when writing there are no errors at this level. But from the point of view of style, such a combination is unacceptable - the lexeme to "erect" refers to the high syllable (artistic), and the word "cowshed" - to the colloquial sphere, and these are different styles of the Russian language. That is, this combination contradicts the stylistic norm.

So, we can distinguish such styles of the modern Russian language:

  • style of artistic speech;
  • colloquial;
  • scientific;
  • newspaper and journalistic;
  • business speech.

All styles of Russian have their ownonly to him style-forming, form-forming factors and signs, uniform means, which predetermine the general laws of speech organization and functioning of a specific text.

For example, the scientific style is peculiarobjectivity, logic, adherence, organization, strict compositionality, homogeneity, system - at the stylistic stage (since the main task is the transfer of scientific information); and at the level of language means - the principle of non-metaphoricity, a large number of terms, abstract nouns, analytical constructions, complex introductory turns.

styles of modern Russian language
Business speech is characterized by standardization, limited by the compatibility of words, nominal combinations, imperative, observance of formal norms.

The newspaper-journalistic style is meant to convey, to convey socially significant information. It allows for some expression, a hint of subjectivity in the transfer of objective facts.

The main features of speaking are dialogue,casualness, intermittent phrases, emotionality, expressiveness, incompleteness of sentences, a large number of references, spontaneity, a decrease in the proportion of significant parts of speech and the predominance of particles, interjections, a more free combination of word forms (due to oral speech), a special word order. Artistic speech has the right to a conscious violation of language norms, if it is functionally justified. Its indicators - expressive means, archaisms, dialectisms, neologisms, extensive use of tropes (metaphors, comparisons, epithets, hyperboles, personifications).

These are the main styles of the Russian language and a brief description of each of them.

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