Styles of the Russian language. Culture of speech and style
A section of science that studies the styles of Russianlanguage, called stylistics. Stylistics is a linguistic discipline that studies the means of expressiveness of speech and studies the laws of the language's work, conditioned by the most obvious and necessary use of its components, directly depending on the context, the meaning, the correlation with the concrete situation.
The central problem in the section "styles of speechRussian language "can be called the doctrine of the norm.It is a kind of sample (lexical, spelling, phonetic, orthoepic, semantic, logical, morphological, punctuation, phraseological, stylistic, word-building, etc.), without which it was not possible to qualitatively evaluate the speech There is a conditional division into the language and stylistic norm.Linguistic is engaged in evaluating the correct choice and use of the resources of the language itself.A stylistic determines how much it is appropriate to choose we have certain forms, components, units in relation to the communicative situation.
So, we can distinguish such styles of the modern Russian language:
- style of artistic speech;
- newspaper and journalistic;
- business speech.
All styles of Russian have their ownonly to him style-forming, form-forming factors and signs, uniform means, which predetermine the general laws of speech organization and functioning of a specific text.
For example, the scientific style is peculiarobjectivity, logic, adherence, organization, strict compositionality, homogeneity, system - at the stylistic stage (since the main task is the transfer of scientific information); and at the level of language means - the principle of non-metaphoricity, a large number of terms, abstract nouns, analytical constructions, complex introductory turns.
The newspaper-journalistic style is meant to convey, to convey socially significant information. It allows for some expression, a hint of subjectivity in the transfer of objective facts.
The main features of speaking are dialogue,casualness, intermittent phrases, emotionality, expressiveness, incompleteness of sentences, a large number of references, spontaneity, a decrease in the proportion of significant parts of speech and the predominance of particles, interjections, a more free combination of word forms (due to oral speech), a special word order. Artistic speech has the right to a conscious violation of language norms, if it is functionally justified. Its indicators - expressive means, archaisms, dialectisms, neologisms, extensive use of tropes (metaphors, comparisons, epithets, hyperboles, personifications).
These are the main styles of the Russian language and a brief description of each of them.