"Lapidary" is what is it and why is it called that?
It would seem, which is easier, look in the dictionaryLatin words and get the result: lapido in Russian translates as "stone". Now from the noun we make the epithet. Hence, "lapidary" means simply "stone"? In what cases is this learned word used? Is it possible to say: "He was sitting with a lapidary face"? Probably not. Also the expression "lapidary house" is impossible. Most often this epithet is used in conjunction with the words "syllable" or "style." And to call someone's way of expressing lapidary means praising him or her oratorical abilities. It seems that the "stone" syllable or style of expressing thoughts on paper seems excessively heavy. But in order to fully understand what "lapidary" means, it is necessary to make a short digression into history.
What is written by the chisel ...
In ancient times, Europe did not know the paper. The usual text was written on wax tablets. When it became unnecessary, the letters were erased. A little heated wax, leveled spatula surface - and again had a blank sheet for writing. But what about the texts of state importance, laws, decrees, international treaties? Of course, you can use papyrus. But then the text will not be displayed on the main square of the city to familiarize citizens with it. That is why decrees, charters and other documentation of state importance were carved in stone. But, since this material is difficult to write down, the thought of the tree did not particularly spread. The ancient office work was concise, concise, but at the same time weighty and understandable. This syllable was later called "lapidary". The meaning of the word thus changes somewhat. This is no longer a way of expressing heavily, but a syllable worthy of being carved into a stone.
Laconism and lapidarnost
Ancient Rome left us many stele andmonuments, where the thought was expressed clearly and concisely, but at the same time beautiful and elegant. Following the politicians who wanted to convey their will to the people, so recognized speakers began to speak. Rhetoric, one of the central sciences in ancient Rome, taught the art of speaking. The listeners needed to be carried away, not exhausted. Therefore, the lapidary speaker is a real master of the syllable. After all, it is important not to overdo it. Excessive laconism could lead to non-recognition of the majority of the audience. As the father of rhetoric himself put it, Horace, the more you try to be short, the more you become incomprehensible. In oratory it was important to find the golden mean: express clearly, clearly, concisely and concisely express your thoughts, while clothed in a form that would penetrate the very heart of the listener or reader.
Further metamorphosis of the meaning of the word "lapidary"
This ability to speak nicely and briefly becamewhether not a virtue in ancient Rome. But with the fall of the great empire, oratory was not lost. Of course, there have been periods in history when fashion came in for high-spirited, colorful, verbose and ornate expressions. But this style was ridiculed by great writers. For example, Shakespeare, who lived in such an era, wrote: "The more words, the less weight they have." A great Russian classic Leo Tolstoy said that short thoughts are good in that they make the smart reader think himself. A striking example of lapidary style are aphorisms. These are brief sentences in which a deep thought is clearly expressed. It's funny, but there are also aphorisms about brevity. It was not for nothing that Anton Pavlovich Chekhov spoke about this. He owns the phrase that all genius is simple, and brevity is the sister of talent.
"Lapidary": the meaning of the term in modernist art
Short, clear, concise - these are the mainThe quality that modern art took over. In its riot against the academic style, it resorts to simple, but strong strokes, juicy, bright colors without halftones. It seeks to show life as it is, without embellishing the truth. This is how Cubism explained in 1921, one of his apologists, S. K. Makovsky: "The revolutionary style of painting is lapidary. This new art does not tolerate refined, it was fed up with this sweetness. " The same trends touched not only the fine arts of the early twentieth century, but also literature. And in our time, the notion of "minimalism" - a kind of lapidary in the design of interiors - has found its application.
Anyone who has seen buildings built in styleempire, will doubt. What can this rich, lavishly decorated with stone decorations and metal forging have, an architectural giant with lapidarity? Empire - this is a modified word "empire". Style became fashionable in the days of Napoleon Bonaparte. Later it was picked up during the Restoration. In the open spaces of the Soviet Union, his interesting branch is known - the Stalin Empire. So, what approximates the decor with apples-pears, pouring from the cornucopia, heavy stucco with hammer sickles and generously, if not to say - overly decorated cornices to the style, which is called "lapidary"? This is a spiritual connection with Ancient Rome. As you remember, we know about lapidary by memorable stele with inscriptions. For the construction in the Empire style, there are antique columns, pilasters, motifs from the Olympic mythology on the friezes, as well as short lapidary inscriptions that praise civil and state virtues.