The term "social control" was first introducedthe French sociologist Gabriel Tard. He proposed to consider it one of the most important factors of socialization. In the subsequent R.Park, E.Rossom, A.Lapierom the whole theory according to which that was necessary means for maintenance of mastering by the person of the elements of the culture developed in a society has been developed.
Social control is a mechanism that existsto maintain order in society, aimed at preventing undesirable, deviant behavior of people and their punishment for it. It is implemented through regulatory regulation.
The most important condition for the functioning of socialsystems - predictability of actions and behavior of people. If it is not satisfied, then its decay will occur. For the sustainability of the system, society uses various means, to which can be attributed social control, performing a protective and stabilizing function.
It has a structure and consists of social norms andsanctions. The first contain prescriptions, certain patterns of behavior in society (they indicate what people should do, think, speak and feel). They are divided into legal (fixed in laws, sanctioned for their violation) and morality (expressed in the form of public opinion, the main instrument of influence is the general censure or approval).
Norms are classified by scale to those that areexist in small, large groups and in society as a whole. The general can include traditions, customs, etiquette, laws, customs, etc. Norms are the rights and duties of a person in relation to others, the fulfillment of which is expected of him by others. They have a strictly defined framework. They are usually referred to social customs and traditions, manners, etiquette, group habits, taboos, social mores, laws.
To regulate human behavior, there arethe sanctions by which his "right actions" are encouraged, and penalties are applied for violations. They can be very diverse, from a disapproving look to deprivation of liberty and even the death penalty. Sanctions are divided into 4 types: negative (punishments), positive (incentives), formal (various awards, bonuses, certificates, scholarships, fines, imprisonment, etc.), informal (approval, praise, compliment, verbal reprimand, insulting tone).
Types of social control
- External (formal and informal) and internal.
Formal control is exercised by state bodies,social and political organizations, the media, based on official conviction or approval and acting on the territory of the entire state. In this case, the rules governing human activities are contained in laws, regulations, various instructions and orders. Formal social control is aimed at observing the existing order and respecting laws with the help of representatives of state bodies. Informal is based on the condemnation or approval of acts by friends, relatives, neighbors, colleagues and so on. It is expressed in the form of traditions, customs, and also through the media.
Internal social control assumesMan's regulation of his behavior independently, based on generally accepted norms. It manifests itself in the form of emotional experiences, feelings of guilt and, in general, attitudes toward perfect deeds. The basic elements of self-control are conscience, will and consciousness.
- Indirect (based on identification withlaw-abiding group) and direct social control, which is based on the availability of various ways of satisfying needs and achieving goals that are alternative to immoral or illegal.