Density of oil
Density is the mass of a substance that isper unit volume. The unit of density measurement is (kg / m³) kilogram per cubic meter. The density of the fuel depends on the group chemical composition. The smallest density is paraffin carbohydrates, and the largest - aromatic and naphthenic carbohydrates. The fractional composition of the oil product affects the density value. The greater the density of fuel (oil) fractions, the higher the temperature regimes of their boiling out. In practice, they face a dimensionless quantity. This is the relative density, which is the ratio of the density of the oil (fuel) at a certain temperature to the density of water taken in the same volume, at a temperature of four degrees Celsius. At 4 ° C, the water density is 1000 kg / m³. The relative density is determined at 20 ° C.
The instrument that measures the density of the oil is called the hydrometer.
In order to measure the density of the liquid,a vessel with oil place the hydrometer so that it floats there freely. On the scale of the hydrometer, the density values are taken off. Density can also be calculated by the formula: mass in kilograms divided by volume in liters.
Accordingly, knowing the volume and hydrometer by determining the density of the oil with a hydrometer, the tonnage of petroleum products can be easily determined by multiplying the density by the volume.
Most often, the density of petroleum products (dieseloil, engine oil, etc.) are carried out with the help of density meters or hydrometers for petroleum products. Compared with traditional instruments that determine the density of the oil (hydrometers), many density has any advantages. In a very narrow range, you can measure the density with a hydrometer. If you buy a hydrometer for each measured liquid, you, on the one hand, can save on buying an electronic densitometer, but on the other hand, you have to buy new hydrometers instead of broken ones. But if you get a density meter, it will be a more convenient means of measuring density, it can be used for many years. Be sure to take into account when buying a density meter, that any device of this kind, other than laboratory ones, must be necessarily certified for explosion protection, because measurements are made in explosive areas.
Measurement of the density of oil products is necessary forIn order to assess the fuel qualitatively, and to determine its quantity. Quantification is the calculation of the mass of the oil by measuring its temperature, density and level (to calculate the volume).
It is the mass that is calculated, because of the above parameters only it will remain unchanged when the temperature changes. The volume (level) and the density of the oil will vary.
Lubrication of all moving parts of the engineprovides engine oil. It covers parts with a protective film that reduces friction and wear, resulting in more energy being transferred to the wheels. It also protects against dirt, corrosion and harmful deposits of engine parts. The oil can refresh the engine due to the fact that excess heat is transferred from the combustion chamber, passing it down to the oil pan.
Mineral oils are simple oils,used by man for decades. They are produced by purifying the crude oil, after which the oil is mixed with a variety of additives that prevent the formation of sediment, preparations that prevent wear and improve viscosity. Mineral oils are relatively cheap and have average performance.
In the laboratory, synthetic oils are produced. They cost more and get them through complex chemical processes.
Semisynthetic oils are a mixture of the first two. In them the average ratio is 20-30% synthetic oil and 70-80% mineral oil.