Structure of sociological knowledge
The structure of sociological knowledge by different authors is determined in different ways. So, various approaches are reflected in the works of Comte, Osipov, Sorokin, Durkheim and many others.
For example, Sorokin is a category of general teachingrepresented in the form of the definition of a social phenomenon or the society itself, a description of its main characteristics, an analysis of the interaction process. The structure of sociological knowledge, in his opinion, also includes a description of modern theoretical trends and teachings about sociology methods.
In the system, Sorokin also singled out public policy, genetics and mechanics as components.
He called social mechanics the study of regularities that manifest themselves in social phenomena.
Public genetics is the doctrine ofthe origin and development of both society itself and its institutions: family, language, religion, art, law, economy and other things. In addition, this component studies the main historical trends, which manifest themselves in the course of history in the development of the society and its institutions.
Public policy is the formulation of methods, an indication of the means and techniques by which it is possible and even necessary to improve public life.
According to the famous Russian sociologistOsipova, the structure of sociological knowledge is presented somewhat differently. In particular, it includes interdisciplinary and public research. The latter are methods, methods, statistics, mathematics. The system also includes branches of sociology, social processes.
Another famous Russian sociologist Yadovexpressed in his works a slightly different view. Thus, the structure of sociological knowledge, which he proposed, is the most suitable and applicable to practical sociological problems.
Thus, Yadov singled out the general concept, special theories, the applied direction, which includes the technology and methodology of research.
General sociology, according to Yadov,focuses on the study of the public sphere, the phenomenon or the process as a whole and the use of the acquired knowledge in practice. The applied direction specializes in studying certain, individual aspects. Technology and methodology is the study and use of methods, techniques, technologies in practice.
Modern sociology is represented by a multilevel complex of theories, types of knowledge interconnected with each other. As its elements, the following are traditionally distinguished:
- Theoretical macrosociology. This industry is based on a specific social and philosophical concept.
- Theories, based on applied concepts used in the study of one or another subsystem of society's life.
- Microsociology based on empirical knowledge.
According to macrosociological theories, phenomena andprocesses in society can be learned by understanding society as a whole. These theories focus on the study of the scope of a certain human activity. They study the types of social communities, spheres of direct relationships (behavior, motivation, relations of public communication, etc.). Such theories, in particular, include Mead's symbolic interactionism, Garfinkel's entomethodology, Homans exchange theory and others.
The structure of sociological knowledge includesmethodological and ideological principles. They include, in particular, the doctrine of the subject itself (or a certain branch of the science of society), knowledge of methods, the development and application of techniques. Among the principles, the doctrine of sociological knowledge itself, its levels, types and forms, as well as the process of research, its functions and structure, are also singled out.