Structure of the Person in Sociology
There is more than one approach to the problem of the structure of the personality in sociology. Structure of personality in sociology - one of the most contentious issues. Its consideration is quite different.
There is a concept 3.Freud, according to which the structure of the personality in sociology consists of three basic elements - it's Ono (Id), I (Ego), Super-I (Super-Ego). It is a subconscious, in which instincts dominate. It identifies two needs: aggression and libido. I am an element of consciousness, which is connected in the unconscious, because "it" periodically breaks out. The superego is an internal censor that includes a set of moral principles and norms. Consciousness is in conflict with the unconscious instincts penetrating it, and on the other hand - with the prohibitions dictated by the Super-I. The resolution of these conflicts is mediated by sublimation (displacement).
For some time the ideas of Freud were consideredunscientific. But it was to them that the structure of the individual in sociology began to be viewed as multifaceted, and in human behavior he saw the struggle of biological and social principles.
Modern Russian authors structurepersonality in sociology is seen as a combination of three components: memory, culture, activity. Memory includes operational information and knowledge, culture - values and social norms, activities - realization of needs, desires, interests of a person.
Social structure of personality in sociology is reflected in culture and vice versa. In the structure of personality, traditional and modern layers of culture are correlated. In a crisis, when the higher cultural layer is affected, the lower traditional layer can become more active itself. This happens in the context of the breaking of moral and ideological norms and values. Characteristic is the similar layer-by-layer removal of cultural layers and with certain mental illnesses.
During the analysis of the structure of personality,consider the relationship of social and individual principles. Each person is unique and unique. On the other hand, a person is a social being, a collective being, collectivism is inherent in it.
Until now, between scientists there is no unity in the matter,is a person individualist or collectivist by nature. There are many supporters of both positions. The solution of this problem is not only of theoretical importance. It depends on him to enter the practice of education. In the USSR, for many years, brought up collectivism as one of the most important properties of the individual. In the West at this time, the bet was made on individualism. As practice shows, none of the options in its pure form is harmonious.
Theories of personality in sociology aimed at studying the relationship between development andthe formation of the individual with the development and functioning of social communities, the connection between the individual and society, and individual groups. The most well-known theories of personality in sociology are the theory of the mirror "I", the psychoanalytic theory, the role theory of personality and the Marxist theory.
The theory of the mirror "I" was developed by J.Mid and C.Kuli. According to this doctrine, a person is a reflection of the reactions of others. Identifies the essence of a person's self-awareness.
Psychoanalytic theory, headed by Z. Freud, is aimed at revealing the contradictions of the inner world of man, the psychological aspects of the connection between man and society.
Role theory was derived by T. Parsson, R.Minton and R. Merton. According to it, social behavior is described by two basic concepts: "social role" and "social status". Status means the position of a person in a social system. A role is an action performed by a person who has a certain status.
Marxist theory sees the personality as a product of the development of the individual in society.