Active and passive voice: characteristic features
Theory concerning such an important topic of Englishlanguage, as an active and passive voice, which, by the way, are called in Russian a little differently - a real and passive voice - is quite a difficult theoretical question, especially for those who are just starting to study, exactly, as for those who know its mediocre.
First of all, I propose to define myselfthe grammatical term of the pledge. This concept includes a special form of the verb, indicating whether the subject performs a certain action independently (acts as a subject), or is the object of the action.
I will give examples:
- Active (Russian valid) deposit: The girls are planting flowers. The girls plant flowers.
- Passive (Russian passive) deposit: The flowers are being planted by girls. "The flowers are planted by the girls."
Active and passive voice in the English language are often enough, so you can not make a special emphasis on any one, saying that without the second one can easily do without.
The basic rule is as follows:
If the subject of the action is the subject in the sentence, then the verb-predicate is used in the asset.
For example, My ex-boyfriend wrote me this strange note. My ex-young man wrote me this strange note.
If the subject of the action is the subject in the sentence, then the verb-predicate will be used in the passive.
For example, This strange note was written by my ex-boyfriend. This strange note was written by my ex-boyfriend.
Active and passive voice have different wayseducation, and, to be more precise, the passive voice is constructed from the corresponding time form of the real according to this formula: the verb be (in the appropriate time) + the third form of the verb (past participle).
In practice, it will look like this:
A group of simple English times Simple (passive voice):
- Present Simple: A little noisy boy is examined by doctor. A small noisy boy is examined by a doctor (meaning regularly).
- Past Simple: Yesterday a little noisy boy was examined by doctor. Yesterday a little noisy boy was examined by a doctor.
- Future Simple: Tomorrow a little noisy boy "Tomorrow a little noisy boy will be examined by a doctor.
A group of long English times Continuous (passive voice):
- Present Continuous: A little noisy boy is being examined by doctor. A small noisy boy is currently being examined by a doctor.
- Past Continuous: A little noisy boy was being examined by doctor from 6 to 7 yesterday. Yesterday a little noisy boy was examined by a doctor from 6 to 7 o'clock.
Group Perfect English Perfect (passive voice):
- Present Perfect: A little noisy boy has been examined by doctor already. The little noisy boy was already examined by the doctor.
- Past Perfect: A little noisy boy 12 o "clock yesterday Yesterday at 12 o'clock the little noisy boy was already examined by the doctor.
- Future Perfect: A little noisy boy will have a doctor by 12 o clock tomorrow Tomorrow by 12 o'clock the doctor of a little noisy boy will already examine.
How could you possibly already notice thatthe obvious fact is that the band Perfect Continuous, as well as the future. For a long time Future Continuous is not used in the passive (passive) voice.
Those. we were convinced that the passive and active collateral have different number of time forms, and if for the asset there are 12, then in the passive it is permissible to use four less, only 8.
A passive voice is applied whenthe attention of the interlocutors is focused on the face or subject to which the action is directed. As a rule, the subject of this action, if indicated, is rarely enough.
Our institute was founded 150 years ago. Our institute was founded 150 years ago.
In this sentence, the institution is the object of action, which is expressed by the predicate (it was founded); and it is about him that we are talking, and not about the founder's personality.
If necessary, the actor canconvey, expressing it with the addition of a preposition by (by no translation, but converting the next word into an instrument case) or with (in English, "with", "with help", "with use").
They were invited by my best friend. They were invited by my best friend.
As I said above, active and passiveThe pledge in English is used equally often. Although if you draw a parallel with the Russian, then we can say with confidence that in our native language the passive voice is used much less often.
In this article, I tried to summarize oneof the most difficult topics. And, finally, I would like to give advice to all beginners to learn a foreign language. Remember, an active and passive voice is a concept that requires not only a thorough understanding of the studied, but also a long and painstaking improvement in practice.